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Tag: "methylation" at biology news

Researchers discover inherited mutation for leukemia

...rocess to silence unneeded genes. But abnormal DNA methylation can turn off genes that control cell growth, and that lead to tumor growth. "Our findings identify for the first time a gene that appears to be associated with hereditary CLL," says coauthor John C. Byrd, professor of internal medicine and a CLL ...

Effect on breast tumors of DNA alternations in 3 genes described

...velopment of cancer." The researchers analyzed methylation status in three genes, known as E-cadherin, p16 and retinoic acid B2 receptor (RAR-B2), using tissue samples from 887 breast cancers. The samples were taken from women 35-79 years old who participated in the Western New York Exposures and Breast Canc...

Linking DNA and histone methylation

...urn genes off. " Although both histone and DNA methylation have long been recognized as hallmarks of euchroma...DNA methyltransferase, DNMT1, to stimulate its DNA methylation activity. DNMT1, in turn, reinforced HP1 binding to methylated histones. Finally, the researchers sh...

Inheritance outside DNA

... parental origin. It works largely by altering the methylation patterns"the addition or subtraction of methyl gro...nd a gene, but not the DNA sequence itself. These methylation patterns are reprogrammed when passed from generation to generation, carrying instructions related t...

Regulating the nuclear architecture of the cell

...esidue, which is a lysine. In the histone code the methylation target is known as H3K9, where K stands for lysine...Peng to propose a specific mechanism by which H3K9 methylation and RNAi pathways regulate nuclear organization. When the H3K9 methylation pathway is functionin...

Novel regulatory mechanism identified for key tumor suppressor p53

... study's two lead authors. "What we found was that methylation at the site we identified prevents p53 from bindin... one of only a small number of studies to identify methylation as playing a role in regulating the activity of proteins that are not histones. Histones are relativ...

Researchers find protein that silences genes

...histones, the proteins that wrap the DNA, and when methylation -- a chemical modification of cytosine, one of the...a key player in both histone deacetylation and DNA methylation of ribosomal RNA genes. Both types of modification are studied as part of a biological field known ...

Activation of microRNA inhibits cancer gene in human cancer cells

... a novel strategy for treating human cancers. DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are epigenetic processes... from abnormal cell growth. Drugs that inhibit DNA methylation and histone deacetylation, known as chromatin-modifying drugs, can reactivate genes that have been a...

Researcher gives hard thoughts on soft inheritance

...ary supplements, you might be able to skew the DNA methylation patterns, and thus skew the way the mice come out ...ming and nurturing of rat pups by rat moms affects methylation of a glucocorticoid receptor gene in the hippocampus in the brain. If the pups get lots of nurturin...

Pathway toward gene silencing described in plants

...mors in humans, and death in mice. One role of DNA methylation is to turn off repetitive genes, such as transposa...s if left unchecked. There is also interest in DNA methylation because understanding how some genes are selectively silenced and how silenced alleles can be turned...

Gene screen for breast cancer better than pathologist's 'eye'

...unts of chemical tags embedded by a process called methylation within critical regions of DNA. The tags attach t...ecific PCR or QM-MSP, determines the percentage of methylation present in each of five to ten cancer genes. The percentages are added together for a cumulative sc...

Researchers uncover new mechanism of tumor suppressor

...e titled ING2 PHD domain links histone H3 lysine 4 methylation to active gene repression. "Our findings have established the mechanistic principles by which the inhibitor of growth 2 tumor suppressor recognizes chromatin and regulates cell growth, proliferation, stress responses and aging. We hope this discover...

In a technical tour de force, Salk scientists take a global view of the epigenome

...fornia at Los Angeles captured the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana - the "l...ren't in order to compare gene activation with the methylation pattern. The investigators saw significant changes when they compared activity of genes in normal ...

AIDS-related cognitive impairment exists in two separate forms

... Researchers have found that a test checking the methylation of a single gene can predict recurrence of prostat...te cancer patients, those who had a positive PITX2 methylation test were three times more likely to experience cancer recurrence than those who tested negative, ac...

Markers of gene, protein, or micro-RNA activity predict outcome in prostate and colorectal cancers

... Researchers have found that a test checking the methylation of a single gene can predict recurrence of prostat...te cancer patients, those who had a positive PITX2 methylation test were three times more likely to experience cancer recurrence than those who tested negative, ac...

Cancer cells suppress large regions of DNA by a reversible process that can be tackled

...sequence: a phenomenon known as 'epigenetics'. DNA methylation is one of the main epigenetic processes. In cancer, the DNA methylation pattern of many genes changes. However, until now, it was believed that only individual single genes...

Embryonic stem cells accrue genetic changes

...l to make proteins. The researchers determined the methylation status of 14 genes in each of the batches of stem cells; three of the genes did show different methylation patterns in late batches compared to early batches. The scientists' analysis revealed that five o...

Biotechnology's newest chemical tool

...re is no comparable way for global analysis of the methylation targets in the cell," Klimasauskas observed. DNA is not the only molecule that is naturally methylated in the cell -- RNA and proteins also undergo methylation, and the enzymes that carry out these reactions also rely on AdoMet as their methyl sourc...

Scientists find evidence of catastrophic sand avalanches, sea level changes in Gulf of Mexico

...man cancer genetics program at Ohio State, studies methylation in both normal and cancer cells in hopes of better...ence. But certain changes in the regulation of DNA methylation could have fatal consequences for a cell or individual." Identical twins are born with an identical...

Identical twins may have more differences than meet the eye

...man cancer genetics program at Ohio State, studies methylation in both normal and cancer cells in hopes of better...ence. But certain changes in the regulation of DNA methylation could have fatal consequences for a cell or individual." Identical twins are born with an identical...

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