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Tag: "methyl" at biology news

Man and mouse share genome structures

.... They isolated the DNA regions with certain major methyl and acetyl tags, and used new microarray technolog...rnstein believes. For example, proteins that place methyl groups on histones can, when mutated, cause leukemia. Bernstein hopes to apply the new technology to...

Genome-wide mouse study yields link to human leukemia

...und that methylation, a chemical process that adds methyl molecules to DNA, silenced a number of genes ?but only in the mice with full-blown ALL. Further tests revealed that the methylation pattern in the mice with leukemia is strikingly similar to the pattern of methylation in human leukemia. In the proc...

Newly Discovered Compound Blocks Known Cancer-Causing Protein

... chemical tag called a "methyl group" to Ras. This methyl tag enables Ras to be directed to its final destin...ction," he said. "By preventing Icmt from adding a methyl group, we can effectively shut down Ras' ability to function, stopping it from sending signals for u...

Protein helps regulate the genes of embryonic stem cells

... gene activity and include methylation, in which a methyl component is attached to the histone protein. The... shown to be required for the addition of a single methyl group to histone H3, said Montgomery. Knowing which proteins are responsible for the various histone...

NYU and MSKCC research provides model for understanding chemically induced cancer initiation

...hange is brought about by the presence of a single methyl group (composed only of one carbon and three hydro...ne base adjacent to the damaged site. Without this methyl group, the bulky chemical carcinogen resides at an external binding site in the minor groove of the ...

Atmosphere may cleanse itself better than previously thought

...tities of radiation absorbed by a substance called methyl hydroperoxide when it breaks up in sunlight and forms OH radicals. Methyl hydroperoxide is one of the substances that can absorb light in the lower UV spectrum, and the team theorizes that the sensitive laser technique, called action spectroscopy, co...

Missing Receptor Molecule Causes Tumor Growth

...components of this gene were modified by attaching methyl groups. Methylation is indeed a common way in which cells silence genes, but in the affected tumor cells, it obviously happens at the wrong time. To conclude their research, Prof. Krainer and his colleagues retested their findings: Their results wer...

Nanoparticles carry cancer-killing drugs into tumor cells

...components of this gene were modified by attaching methyl groups. Methylation is indeed a common way in which cells silence genes, but in the affected tumor cells, it obviously happens at the wrong time. To conclude their research, Prof. Krainer and his colleagues retested their findings: Their results wer...

A new molecule discovered in the battle between plants and disease

...ion of proAtPep1, but wounding, exposing plants to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), or supplying plants with the AtPep1 peptide through cut petioles induced expression of the gene. Also expressed in response to AtPep1 were the PDF1.2 gene (a plant defensin) and the PR-1 gene, (a pathogenesis-related gene). Two woun...

Plant pathologists evaluate eco-friendly alternatives to methyl bromide

... the Montreal Protocol called for the phase-out of methyl bromide, a soil fumigant used to control soilborne...an 100 crops worldwide. The phase out was based on methyl bromide's ability to deplete ozone and disrupt the UV protective ozone layer. The EPA determined tha...

Change in gene may be underlying molecular defect in some colorectal cancers

...ethylated--that is, the gene's promoter region has methyl groups added to it, which inactivate the gene. Jean-Pierre J. Issa, M.D., of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, and colleagues hypothesized that MGMT promoter methylation could be one of the characteristics of the field ...

Biotechnology's newest chemical tool

...ttached to three hydrogens, known to chemists as a methyl group -- to specific bases within a DNA sequence, ...ion. Methyltransferases require a source for the methyl groups that they attach to DNA, and most often that source is a molecule called S-Adenosyl-L-methion...

Embryonic stem cells accrue genetic changes

.... These so-called epigenetic marks -- in this case methyl groups on a gene region known as the promoter -- help control whether a gene is used by a cell to make proteins. The researchers determined the methylation status of 14 genes in each of the batches of stem cells; three of the genes did show different...

Novel enzyme offers new look at gene regulation

...d that a protein called JHDM1A is able to remove a methyl group from histone H3, one of four histone protein...all genes. Until just last year, the addition of a methyl group to a histone had been regarded as irreversible. "That histones can become methylated has been...

NIH launches comprehensive effort to explore cancer genomics

...mics looks at how various small molecules, such as methyl groups, when added or removed from DNA, can have profound effects on gene function. Each component of the TCGA Pilot Project will have clear milestones and goals. Only if the pilot achieves its goals will the full-scale project to develop a complete ...

MIT chemist discovers secret behind nature's medicines

...ally unreactive part of a molecule, in this case a methyl group. They break specific chemical bonds and then replace a hydrogen atom with a halide, one of the elements from the column of the periodic table containing chlorine, bromine and iodine. In the lab, that's a very challenging task, but nature accomp...

Evolutionary shifts in olfactory sensitivities in fruit flies

...sed by D. sechellia when locating morinda fruit is methyl hexanoate (MeHex), which possesses a pineapple-like odor. The researchers found that olfactory hairs (sensilla) on the antenna that house receptor neurons specific to the MeHex odor have become three times more numerous, and one hundred times more se...

In a technical tour de force, Salk scientists take a global view of the epigenome

...G, C, and T) reiterated in our DNA. Adding a bulky methyl group to a C often blocks interaction with protein...eeps transposons in time-out by covering them with methyl groups. ...

Eco-friendly bug sucker

...d be used in place ozone-depleting chemicals, like methyl bromide, which are currently used to sterilise fre...nd may complete the phasing out of ozone depleting methyl bromide. In 1997 160 governments promised to phase out its use by 2005 as part of the Montreal Proto...

Novel regulatory mechanism identified for key tumor suppressor p53

...ists identified an enzyme called Smyd2 that adds a methyl group to the p53 protein at a specific site, with ...or methylation in regulating p53. In that study, a methyl group added to a specific site on p53 called K372 was shown to activate the tumor-suppressor molecul...

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