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Tag: "metabolic" at biology news

Scientists ID molecular 'switch' in liver that triggers harmful effects of saturated and trans fats

...n, who carries out basic research on fat cells and metabolic pathways in diabetes and cancer at Dana-Farber. "It offers the opportunity to try to understand what makes these fatty acids so deleterious, and what we need to avoid." Moreover, it is possible that in the future, drug therapy might be used to "turn...

W.M. Keck Foundation funds study of friendly microbes

... inhabit the intestine and identifying the natural metabolic products that they synthesize in their native gut ...a." "Fortunately, these microbes endow us with key metabolic functions that we have not had to evolve on our own," Gordon says. He and his colleagues have used ...

Poor prenatal nutrition permanently damages function of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas

...g everything in balance. But diabetes is a complex metabolic disorder with numerous players such as high levels of blood glucose, cholesterol and other lipids. "The challenge is to figure out which factors are a primary cause of diabetes and which are a consequence, said Dr. Patti. "In our study, we needed to ...

Genome of deadly amoeba shows surprising complexity, evidence of lateral gene transfer

...ytica likely picked up a significant number of its metabolic genes from bacterial co-inhabitants of the human g...his ancient parasite evolved and highlight unusual metabolic processes that may be exploitable as drug targets." The project also identified some large families...

Iron Deficiency Sparks Dramatic Changes In Gene Expression

...ssesoccur."The cellular player responsible for the metabolic reprogramming is aprotein called Cth2. Thiele's team found that iron-deprived cellsoverproduce Cth2. This protein binds to the gene expression machineryof more than 80 different genes and targets these molecules, calledmessenger RNA, to be destroyed ...

A bacterial genome reveals new targets to combat infectious disease

... example, Wolbachia can manufacture some essential metabolic coenzymes, which do not appear to be made by its host. Conversely, it cannot synthesize amino acids and a variety of other vitamins and cofactors, and probably depends on the nematode to supply them. One discovery of possible significance is the pre...

Weill Cornell Research Reveals Secrets Of Trafficking Within Cells

...n obesity, for example, that even a tiny change in metabolic rate results in someone becoming obese." Endocytosis involves the shuttling back and forth of vesicles (sac-like objects) filled with nutrients, neurotransmitters, or other compounds; usually from the cell surface to the cell interior. Previous wor...

Novel ultrafast laser detection of cancer cells also may improve understanding of stem cells

... becomes. That process is a mysterious sequence of metabolic and genetic changes." There are, he says, metabolic similarities between stem cells and cancer cells, and researchers would like to clearly identify the...

Opposing fat metabolism pathways triggered by a single gene

...ith the most dramatic effects occurring within two metabolic pathways: mitochondrial lipid oxidation and fatty acid desaturation. Following up on these changes in gene expression, Yamamoto and colleagues show that in its normal actions, nhr-49 sets in motion two opposing pathways: it increases expression of a...

Effective Cancer Treatments Follow The Clock

...her this effect might be due to differences in the metabolic activation of the anti-cancer drug, but found esse...uch drugs,?said Takahashi. “This is not some vague metabolic difference between day and night. This is a tangible difference in the immune system that influences...

LUCA technologies confirms real-time methane generation

... a broad genus of bacteria known for their diverse metabolic pathways. Clostridia frequently thrive in anaerobi...a that populate them, as well as to understand the metabolic processes by which those consortia generate methane. The company expects to evaluate specific Geobio...

PET/MRI scans may help unravel mechanisms of prenatal drug damage

...w how much and how quickly the cocaine (and/or the metabolic byproducts that retain the carbon-11) enters and clears the various organs. The radiotracer decays and completely clears from the animal's body in about two hours. After the procedure, the animals were returned to their social colony to deliver their...

Alzheimer's cognitive decline slowed

...ion in the rate of cognitive decline and increased metabolic activity in the brain, according to a study publis...d 18-fluorodeoxyglucose, an indicator of increased metabolic activity in the brain. The researchers noted that the increase was observed in most cortical regions...

Buying Time Through Hibernation on Demand

... for the first time, induced a state of reversible metabolic hibernation in mice. This achievement, the first d...y an organism's need for oxygen. If such temporary metabolic inactivity ?and subsequent freedom from oxygen dependence ?could be replicated in humans, it could h...

U-M team recovers ancient whale in Egyptian desert

... for the first time, induced a state of reversible metabolic hibernation in mice. This achievement, the first d...y an organism's need for oxygen. If such temporary metabolic inactivity ?and subsequent freedom from oxygen dependence ?could be replicated in humans, it could h...

Researchers report new pro-inflammatory role for anti-inflammatory enzyme

...ety of mechanisms, mostly related to inhibition of metabolic enzymes and destruction of DNA." However, too much NO can be a bad thing. Sustained overproduction of NO can cause septic shock (sepsis). "In sepsis, which is a systemic bacterial infection, the body expresses iNOS which generates relatively high co...

Study reveals new technique for fingerprinting environmental samples

...o piece together the information and form a useful metabolic picture of an entire complex environment. This st...GI. While different environments present different metabolic pictures, this research, Rubin said, facilitates a holistic perspective on environmental systems, so...

Signs of aging: Scientists evaluate genes associated with longevity

...t is commonly believed that a variety of genes and metabolic pathways contribute to the deterioration of cells,...ult stages of daf-2 mutants, genes associated with metabolic processes exhibited repressed expression. This 'hypo-metabolic' state, which involved major lipid, n...

Low oxygen likely made Great Dying worse, greatly delayed recovery

...said. "As the climate warms, body temperatures and metabolic rates go up. That means oxygen demand is going up, so animals would face an increased oxygen demand and a reduced supply. It would be like forcing athletes to exercise more but giving them less food. They'd be in trouble." Ward was lead author of a ...

Scientists reveal the shape of a protein that helps retroviruses break into cells

...said. "As the climate warms, body temperatures and metabolic rates go up. That means oxygen demand is going up, so animals would face an increased oxygen demand and a reduced supply. It would be like forcing athletes to exercise more but giving them less food. They'd be in trouble." Ward was lead author of a ...

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