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Tag: "messenger" at biology news

Common cancer gene sends death order to tiny killer

...oduces other types of RNA in the cell, such as the messenger RNAs that carry the instructions to make proteins. Once produced, microRNAs stick to messenger RNAs and, like crumpled paper jammed in a copy machine, prevent proteins from being made. Josh M...

Exploring the dark matter of the genome

...r lengths of DNA that code for RNAs other than the messenger RNA needed to make proteins, and other functional ...mple. We mapped experimentally derived evidence of messenger RNAs back to the matching heterochromatin sequence. And we looked for sequences similar to ones alre...

Human genetic 'deserts' are teeming with significant life

...gions of DNA within a gene that are transcribed to messenger RNA] outside the current boundaries of the annotat...tion that mammalian transcriptomes [the set of all messenger RNA molecules produced in a population of cells] are made of a swarming mass of different overlappin...

St. Jude study shows genes play an unexpected role in their own activation

...esponse to a molecule called cAMP, which acts as a messenger for a variety of stimuli including hormones and ne...nt for most gene activation controlled by the cAMP messenger molecule. Instead, the binding of CREB to KIX is necessary for only part of the activation of certai...

How plague-causing bacteria disarm host defense

...ll. YpkA targets a host protein called Gaq, the messenger that transmits extracellular signals ("we are under attack!") into the host cell, so that it can mount a defense. "The alarm signal sent by Gaq is intercepted by YpkA, which sets up a roadblock along several cellular pathways that Gq uses to del...

A cherry on top: Tart cherries may alter heart/diabetes factors

...Type 2 diabetes. Meanwhile, the measure of PPAR messenger RNA in the liver reflects the readiness of the liver tissue to express functional PPAR. PPAR is important to the process by which the body burns fat instead of storing it, and it is important in the formation of blood lipids like LDL, typically known...

LIAI scientists make important finding on cytomegalovirus transmission

...ing binding of IL-10 to its receptor. "IL-10 is a messenger molecule which suppresses the protective T cell response that would normally attack the cytomegalovirus," he said. "By blocking the ability of the IL-10 molecule to bind to its receptor, then you allow these T cells to do their job and reduce or eli...

Genome of yellow fever/dengue fever mosquito sequenced

...s, scientists have also sequenced large amounts of messenger RNAs collected from different mosquito tissues at distinct developmental stages. Matching a messenger RNA to a predicted gene will validate authenticity of this gene." The TE team, lead by the Tu la...

Newly identified mechanism for silencing genes points to possible anti-cancer strategies

...that act to interfere with gene transcription into messenger RNA or translation of messenger RNA into protein. In a new study published online May 16 in the journal Nature, a team of scienti...

Mutation improves memory, may lead to memory-enhancing pill

... expression depends on both its transcription into messenger RNA and the translation of that messenger RNA into functional proteins. Sonenberg and Costa-Mattioli earlier found the first genetic eviden...

Loss of a universal tRNA feature reported

...ble for decoding sequence information specified by messenger RNA molecules, information which is ultimately encoded by the DNA template. tRNAHis is the specific tRNA that assists in incorporating the amino acid histidine into new proteins. Histidine residues make essential contributions to protein structure ...

Penn study on olfactory nerve cells shows why we smell better when we sniff

... signals, which then trigger a secondary molecular messenger cascade that generates electrical impulses to the ... and mechanical stimuli both resulted in the same messenger molecule, cAMP, which acts like a gatekeeper of reactions in the olfactory neurons. Although thi...

Mechanisms involved with tumor relapse identified

...ound that interferon gamma, a cytokine or chemical messenger that is produced by cells of the immune system upon activation, plays a role in tumor relapse. In humans, interferon gamma is also produced by white blood cells of the immune system in response to invasion by pathogens or tumors in order to protect t...

Biologists develop large gene dataset for rice plant

...lleagues examined both normal gene expression (via messenger ribonucleic acids, or mRNAs) as well as small ribonucleic acids (small RNAs) in rice. The analysis of rice was based on gene sequences representing nearly 47 million mRNA molecules and three million small RNAs, a larger dataset than has been repor...

Destructive enzyme shows a benevolent side

...hat a recently discovered enzyme that destroys the messenger RNA (mRNA) for some proteins can also help to protect the mRNA during times of stress. The response might help cancer cells survive chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The study examined a recently discovered enzyme called PMR1. That enzyme attache...

OHSU lab finds meth receptor that could lead to therapy

... relatives of meth known as phenylethylamines. The messenger RNA that codes for TAAR1 is expressed throughout t...ne stimulate the production of an important second messenger known as cyclic adenosine monophosphate, or cAMP, inside cells expressing the rat TAAR1. Encouraged ...

HIV protein enlisted to help kill cancer cells

... in St. Louis have found an efficient way to get a messenger into cancer cells that forces them to respond to death signals. And they did it using one of the most sinister pathogens around ?HIV. "HIV knows how to insert itself into many different types of cells," says senior author William G. Hawkins, M.D., a...

Notorious cancer gene may work by destroying messenger

...ontrol protein production by destroying particular messenger RNAs (mRNAs), molecules that carry the information...se three cancer-cell lines to try to identify what messenger RNAs ?which will also tell them what proteins ?are targeted and destroyed by PMR1. “That will he...

MicroRNA helps prevent tumors

...repress activity of a gene by targeting the gene's messenger RNA (which copies DNA information and starts the process of protein production). The first microRNA was discovered in 1993, in worms. It took seven years for the second one to be found, also in worms, but then the floodgates burst. Many microRNAs...

Killing the messenger RNA -- But which one?

...ing to and neutralizing another form of RNA called messenger RNA, responsible for conveying the information from genes to the cellular machinery that uses that information to create proteins, the building blocks of the body. Several hundred species of microRNAs have been identified to date, and increasingly th...

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