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Tag: "mechanisms" at biology news

Genomic Analysis Uncovers New Targets for HIV Vaccine

...how they control HIV-1, but also point torward new mechanisms of control," said Goldstein, director of the Center for Population Genomics and Pharmacogenetics at Duke's Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy . Goldstein is the senior author of the paper. "As we expand the number of patients in future stud...

A new plant-bacterial symbiotic mechanism promising for crop applications

...ation. Bradyrhizobium consequently appeared to use mechanisms that involved other genes. This surprising result ...o a plant hormone (4), cytokinin, could act in the mechanisms by triggering nodulation. The discovery of the nature of the signal molecule itself, which remains t...

Undergraduate research shows leaderless honeybee organizing

...fort in Schneider’s lab aimed at understanding the mechanisms of leaderless societal management – in particular, the importance of two communication-related behaviors known as the “vibration signal” and “worker piping.” Different from the famous “waggle dance” that foraging worker bees perform to tell othe...

Physicist cracks women's random but always lucky choice of X chromosome

... run counter to the usual idea that the biological mechanisms evolve in ways that allow a "best" choice to be made between things rather than a random one. Now researchers led by University of Warwick physicist Dr Mario Nicodemi have explained how this randomness occurs and why that it is beneficial. This wi...

ASU research shows connection between testosterone, dietary antioxidants and bird coloration

...ese findings show that there are nutrient specific mechanisms by which animals can avoid the immune costs of testosterone elevation and still keep their attractive and bright colors,” McGraw said. Most previous studies of this sort have focused on physiological or even genetic links between testosterone and hea...

Penn researchers link cell's protein recycling systems

... cells, suggesting that the cell’s normal disposal mechanisms are not operating correctly. Now, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have discovered a molecular link between the cell’s two major pathways for breaking down proteins and have succeeded in using this link to rescue neuro...

Herpes virus hijacks DNA repair process

...sumed that this activation occurred because repair mechanisms were mistaking replicating viral DNA for damaged or dysfunctional cellular DNA. "Viruses sometimes structure their own DNA differently than cellular DNA," Tarakanova notes. "Many of us thought that such differences might be triggering the DNA dama...

Cancer stem cells similar to normal stem cells can thwart anti-cancer agents

...s, which they have shown share the same protective mechanisms as normal lung stem cells. They are presenting this ground-breaking research at the Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society (TERMIS) North American Chapter meeting being held June 13 to 16 at the Westin Harbor Castle confer...

Fat fish put obesity on the hook

...orarily turning off or diminishing the fat-storing mechanisms that were once crucial to the survival of our species. The zebrafish has become a model animal for the study of many diseases because it has a backbone and because its genetics have been well described. This is one more example of how basic experimen...

Researchers identify protein pathway involved in Parkinson disease development

...during oxygen metabolism. Although cells have mechanisms in place to protect against oxidative damage, this system can break down in the face of environmental challenges or genetic mutations. The Emory researchers found that the mitochondrial protein PINK1 normally protects cells from oxidative stress ...

Surprising origin of cell's internal highways

...averina and colleagues also examined the molecular mechanisms governing the process. They found that proteins normally associated with the plus ends of microtubules, called CLASPs, localize to a specific compartment of the Golgi (the Trans Golgi Network) and stabilize the microtubule "seeds" at the Golgi. G...

The mouflons of the Kerguelen archipelago

... Denis Réale and his co-workers sheds new light on mechanisms that can regulate this genetic diversity. ...

Turn-ons and turn-offs for neurons

...all believed to change neuronal gene expression by mechanisms involving gene accessibility without changes in DN...erimental neuroscience and in our understanding of mechanisms governing gene regulation in the brain. Indeed, the epigenetic mechanisms in charge of switching gen...

Revealed -- Mosquito genes that could be controlling the spread of killer viruses

... hope to gain a more complete understanding of the mechanisms by which a pathogen either survives inside the insect body, or is killed by the insect’s defences.” The international research team, led by Imperial PhD student Robert Waterhouse, focused on comparing the immunity genes of the Aedes mosquito with ...

HIV and malaria combine to adversely affect pregnant women and their infants

...wledge into effective therapies. Until now the mechanisms by which pregnant women defend themselves against malaria and how HIV impairs this defence have been unknown, but a paper published in PLoS Medicine (Public Library of Science) pinpoints how the virus targets the immune response in pregnant women. "P...

First confirmed common genetic risk factors for breast cancer

... new results may be in understanding the molecular mechanisms of breast cancer. The Nature paper is the second major research report published this year by this international team of scientists. In February of this year, the team reported in Nature Genetics that they had identified a gene (Caspase 8) that co...

How brain pacemakers erase diseased messages

... found in the heads of about 30,000 Americans, the mechanisms by which deep brain stimulation alleviates disease symptoms aren't well understood. Biomedical engineers at Duke University's Pratt School of Engineering have found that stimulation administered by rapid-fire electrical pulses deep in the brain pr...

Detecting cold, feeling pain: Study reveals why menthol feels fresh

...al "Nature" (May 30, 2007), reveals one of the key mechanisms by which the body detects temperature sensation. B...discoveries led by the Julius lab on the molecular mechanisms of temperature sensation and pain. In 1997, the lab cloned the gene for the capsaicin receptor, the ...

Puzzling plankton yield secrets to role in evolution/global photosynthesis

...ricks to maintain such tiny cells. There are many mechanisms that can account for species formation in photosyn..., we’re positioned to secure a better grasp on the mechanisms of species adaptation and the great diversity of biological pathways operating in the oceans," said ...

Salk scientists hammer out a pathway that promotes muscle cell survival in mice

...cle cells may someday shed light on the underlying mechanisms of many diseases that affect cell survival, such a...a completely unexpected link between two important mechanisms of gene regulation, CREB and HDAC, and have shown that this pathway plays a major role in maintainin...

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