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Tag: "mammalian" at biology news

A new mechanism of regulating RNA degradation

...n cells," said Maquat, even though its presence in mammalian cells has been recognized for several years. "We ...he "tip of the iceberg" for Staufen1's function in mammalian cells, said Maquat, and just the beginning of the SMD story as well. ...

FDA Approves Human Hookworm Vaccine for Phase I Safety Trials

...n cells," said Maquat, even though its presence in mammalian cells has been recognized for several years. "We ...he "tip of the iceberg" for Staufen1's function in mammalian cells, said Maquat, and just the beginning of the SMD story as well. ...

Enzyme, lost in most mammals, is shown to protect against UV-induced skin cancer

...aveparticular potential to cause lasting damage to mammalian cells becausephotolyases ?a class of enzymes capable of efficiently repairing theselesions ?have apparently been lost from placental mammals over thecourse of evolution.Thus, most mammals, including humans, can only repair these lesionsthrough a much...

Priming embryonic stem cells to fulfill their promise

...s theextracellular matrix, or scaffolding, of most mammalian tissues. Untilnow, there has been no practical way to evaluate the daunting number ofpossible combinations of these proteins, any one of which could formthe optimal "niche" for a desired type of differentiated cell.In their experiments, the UCSD rese...

An HIV Protein Plays a Surprising Role in Gene Activation

... complex lacks the TAFs typically linked to TBP in mammalian cells. Because their experiments analyzed only transcription complex assembly, the authors are careful to note that Tat may well stimulate assembly in addition to promoting transcription elongation. And it may be this resourcefulness that makes Tat s...

Spider Venom Could Yield Eco-Friendly Insecticides

...ular level. Because these toxins do not affect the mammalian nervous system, it may be possible to use them to create environmentally friendly insecticides. Insect pests destroy about 25 percent of the world's crops each year, despite the extensive application of chemical insecticides since World War II. The ...

Plant hemoglobins: Oxygen handlers critical for nitrogen fixation

...that is conceptually not unlike that undertaken by mammalian hemoglobins in facilitating oxygen transport and exchange in the blood. The most conspicuous plant hemoglobins are the symbiotic hemoglobins of legumes; these hemoglobins accumulate in root nodules and give these specialized organs their distinctive...

Critical role in programmed cell death identified

...l death program in motion. While their activity in mammalian cell death was known, mitochondrial involvement in worms had not previously been shown. The new work, led by Dr. Barbara Conradt, assistant professor of genetics at Dartmouth Medical School, reveals the importance of mitochondria in cell death in th...

Scientists reveal molecular secrets of the malaria parasite

... lifecycles in their mosquito vectors and in their mammalian hosts. Malariaparasites undergo three stages in their mosquito vectors, three stagesin their vertebrate hosts and a sexual development stage during whichthe parasite is transmitted between vector and host.The Science paper represents the culmination ...

Novel ultrafast laser detection of cancer cells also may improve understanding of stem cells

...lly put, "To rapidly assess the health of a single mammalian cell," says Gourley, "the key discovery was the elucidation of biophotonic differences in normal and cancer cells by using intracellular mitochondria as biomarkers for disease. This technique holds promise for detecting cancer at a very early stage a...

PANTHER Protein Classification System Database 5.0

...onal subfamilies, and coveringapproximately 90% of mammalian protein coding genes. The Web-basedinterface allows life scientists to browse or analyze large sets ofgenes by their known or inferred biological functions and explore morethan 60 pathways associated with protein families, subfamilies, andtraining se...

Opposing fat metabolism pathways triggered by a single gene

...s fat content. In its function, nhr-49 resembles a mammalian NHR, called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Further investigation of this link may lead to better understanding of the functions of PPARs and provide opportunities for altering their function for treatment of fat metabolism disor...

Fibril Shape Is The Basis Of Prion Strains And Cross-species Prion Infection

...identified many "strains" of disease prions across mammalian and yeast species. Researchers thought these strai...r experiments also used a shortened version of the mammalian prion protein, so they hope to test the fibril factor in a full-length protein soon. Jones and Sure...

Researchers identify protein crucial for survival of Lyme-disease bacterium

... the bacterium, as opposed to just focusing on the mammalian infection, which is what many scientists tend to do." ...

Light therapy may combat fungal infections, new evidence suggests

...th which the fungus causes lethal infection in the mammalian host," Heitman said. "It is therefore conceivable that light could be used as a therapy for fungal infections, particularly infections at the body surface, such as those of skin or nails." Laser therapy might also be possible for certain fungal sinus...

Scientists identify molecule that regulates well-known tumor suppressor

...lecule DJ-1 as a PTEN suppressor. In studies with mammalian cells, low levels of DJ-1 correlated with decreased PKB/Akt activity, while increased DJ-1 led to activation of PKB/Akt and enhanced cell survival. In cancer cells from breast cancer patients, elevated PKB/Akt activity and reduced PTEN expression wer...

Love's all in the brain: fMRI study shows strong, lateralized reward, not sex, drive

...ge romantic love is possibly a developed form of a mammalian drive to pursue preferred mates, and that it has a...hypothesized, "even love-at-first-sight is a basic mammalian response that developed in other animals and our ancestors inherited in order to speed up the mating...

Revolutionary nanotechnology illuminates brain cells at work

...ain chemical that increases nerve-cell activity in mammalian brains. It is involved in everything from learning and memory to mood and perception. Too much glutamate is believed to contribute to conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The research is published in the May 30-June 3 on-line early...

Insight into DNA's 'weakest links' may yield clues to cancer biology

... Earlier work by other researchers had shown that mammalian chromosomes break at particular sites under certai...ore complex organisms." The findings suggest that mammalian and yeast fragile sites may have common features, an indication that a common mechanism may underlie...

Edible bivalves as a source of human pathogens: signals between vibrios and the bivalve host.

...common strategy utilized by pathogenic bacteria in mammalian cells: to undermine host cell functions through disregulation of its signaling pathways". This research gives an insight into the complexity of signals that pass between vibrios and bivalve host cells and helps to explain how these processes develop...

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