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Tag: "malfunction" at biology news

Computational Method Speeds Mapping of Cell Signaling Networks

...l for understanding disease states where signaling malfunction plays a prominent role, including cancer and autoimmunity. Until now, the large amounts of data the technique requires prevented its application to protein networks. Being able to monitor multiple components in thousands of cells at once was pivotal...

Micro-molecule plays big role in birth defects

...ll be as a new technique to study the function and malfunction of microRNAs, more than 200 types of which are thought to exist in the human body. "We looked at limb development because it's a great place to demonstrate the technique," said Brian Harfe, Ph.D., an assistant professor of molecular genetics and mic...

Gambling monkeys give insight into neural machinery of risk

...y using drugs to determine how the circuitry might malfunction in human disorders. "For example, it is believed that people who have low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin might be more risk prone and impulsive," said Platt. "Disturbances in such neurotransmitter systems might be the basis of pathological...

Beyond genes: Lipid helps cell wall protein fold into proper shape

...ugh a bacterium's outer cell wall will misfold and malfunction if that wall is built of the 'wrong' material, scientists at The University of Texas Medical School at Houston report in a finding that has long-term implications for understanding diseases caused by misfolded proteins such as cystic fibrosis, Alzhei...

Elderly mice yield clues to the process of growing old

...oken spellchecker," says Prolla. "By introducing a malfunction in the (genetic) proofreading domain, these mutations accumulate much more rapidly." The new work lends support to one of the two leading theories of how animals, including humans, grow old and die. It supports the theory that apoptosis or programme...

Researchers uncover mechanisms of estrogen in promoting cell death in breast cancer

...il to cause tumor regression, the cause is often a malfunction of a natural pathway called apoptosis, which breaks down cells in the body. Many breast cancer cells require estrogen for survival (called estrogen receptor–positive breast cancers), and apoptosis of such cells can be induced with treatments that bl...

Researchers reverse juvenile diabetes in animal model

...ly to the target, the T cells that are causing the malfunction of the pancreas, and not to another part of the body. Type 1 diabetes also is known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes. While type 2 diabetes typically strikes adults, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) rep...

UCLA scientists find male gene in brain area targeted by Parkinson's

...occurs when cells in the substantia nigra begin to malfunction and die. These brain cells produce a neurotransmitter called dopamine that communicates with the brain areas controlling movement and coordination. As the cells die off, they produce less dopamine. This slows the delivery of messages from the brain...

Research could lead to better drugs and whiter whites

...come without their involvement. "But when enzymes malfunction they can cause serious diseases, so modern drugs are designed to prevent enzymes accelerating, or 'catalysing', inappropriate reactions. "Our research has shown at an atomic level how enzymes act as catalysts; the findings are a radical departure fr...

Key stress protein linked to toxicities responsible for Parkinson's, Alzheimer's

...ween protein misfolding due to enzymatic machinery malfunction found in a number of degenerative diseases and free radical stress in nerve cells," said Stuart A. Lipton, M.D., Ph.D., Professor and Director of the Del E. Webb Center for Neurosciences and Aging at the Burnham Institute and senior author of the stu...

Adult stem cell research at UB targets damaged hearts

...erived adult stem cells to treat the serious heart malfunction known as hibernating myocardium. Hibernating myocardium is a condition in which heart cells that have experienced reduced blood flow over an extended period of time due to narrowed coronary arteries adapt to this deprivation by down-regulating metab...

New understanding of parasite cell structures may provide treatments for serious tropical diseases

...n equivalent of a glycosome is a peroxisome, whose malfunction is associated with diseases such as Zellweger Syndrome. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, symptoms of this disorder at birth "may include lack of muscle tone and an inability to move. Other symptoms may include...

When nerve cells can't make contact

...spectrum". The main symptoms of this developmental malfunction are delayed language development or no language de...urnal Neuron has shown that this model exhibited a malfunction in the signal transmission between the nerve cells. With his colleague Varoqueaux, Brose has created...

Parkinson's mutation stunts neurons

..., researchers have found. They have pinpointed the malfunction of the protein made by mutant forms of the gene called LRRK2 and how it affects neurons, ultimately leading to their death. The loss of dopamine-producing neurons is central to the pathology of PD, and loss of connections among such neurons is an ear...

Psst! Coffee drinkers: Fruit flies have something to tell you about caffeine

... to the taste nerves on the fly's "tongue" or some malfunction in the fly's brain. Chemical stimulants trigger taste receptor cells to send an electrical current to the brain where the information is processed and often leads to a change in behavior, such as the decision to eat or avoid. With fine tools, the r...

New study aims to stop sepsis in its tracks

...ure, breathing, and heart rate. It can lead to the malfunction or failure of several major organs. "The goal of this project is to speed recovery, increase survival rates, and improve the long-term quality of life for those who have had sepsis," said NIGMS Director Jeremy M. Berg, Ph.D. One of the major chal...

How genetic malfunction causes a form of retardation

Researchers have discovered that the genetic malfunction that causes a form of mental retardation called Noonan Syndrome (NS) produces an imbalance in the genesis of two types of cells in the developing embryonic brain. This imbalance, they theorize, could explain how the genetic abnormality gives rise to ...

Gene malfunctions cause schizophrenia, depression symptoms in mice

...earchers have demonstrated for the first time that malfunction of a gene that had been associated with schizophrenia and depression does indeed cause symptoms of those disorders. They said their findings in mice offer a possible animal model for developing treatments for schizophrenia and depression. Also, they ...

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