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Tag: "machinery" at biology news

Can engineered immune cells stop AIDS?

... must infect a cell and take control of the host's machinery to make copies. HIV also possesses an unusual structure and a keen ability to hide from antibodies in a sugar-coated shield. The shield has very few open spaces on its surface, Wang says, which makes it virtually impossible to penetrate. And becau...

Stretching DNA to the limit

...to replicate and interact with the transcriptional machinery to synthesize proteins. Marszalek and his colleagues have also examined synthetic DNA to figure out the extent to which different bases are affected by UV light. They conclude that the changes in the force profile of viral DNA exposed to UV light are...

Walking molecule now carries packages

...ly. This will become as important to the molecular machinery of the future as trucks and conveyor belts are for factories of today." The last paper Bartels and his team published on this subject generated a great deal of interest. It was included in the American Institute of Physics "Top 25 Physics Stories f...

Short chromosomes put cancer cells in forced rest

...omas. When the researchers blocked the suicide machinery in these fifth-generation mice, they were very surprised to find that the mice still remained cancer free. "We were confused as to what was going on; we thought for sure that blocking the cells?ability to commit suicide would lead to the cancer’s...

Killing the messenger RNA -- But which one?

...nveying the information from genes to the cellular machinery that uses that information to create proteins, the building blocks of the body. Several hundred species of microRNAs have been identified to date, and increasingly they are being seen as vitally important players in regulating the genome. Now, a new...

Scientists reveal structure of gateways to gene control

...id. When the gene is needed, the cell's molecular machinery loosens the DNA wrapping around the nucleosome, unlocking the transcription gateway to give access to the cell's molecular transcription machinery. "We think that the function of the nucleosome is to control the gateway to transcription," Pugh said....

Cholera pathogen reveals how bacteria generate energy to live

...hat the cofactors ?important parts of the enzyme’s machinery ?are all located on the inner side of the membrane, which corresponds to the "intake" port of the ion pump. The second paper was published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry. In this study, Barquera focused on structures, known as flavins, wit...

Protein averts cell suicide but might contribute to cancer

...comes a template for a new partner. The DNA-making machinery travels along the old half, building the new half ...e the gap and then leaves, allowing the DNA-making machinery to bypass the damage and continue construction. The action averts cell suicide, but the gap ?and...

How fish mend a broken heart

...Poss said. "Thus, most biologists suspect that the machinery to optimize regeneration from progenitor cells is present, but lies dormant, in mammals." In an earlier study, Poss and his colleagues found that zebrafish have a unique ability to regenerate cardiac muscle after major injury. They further suspecte...

Gladstone investigators identify a new protective action for the powerful anti-HIV factor, APOBEC3G

...tering them in the cytoplasm away from the nuclear machinery required for copying the RNA back into DNA and inserting the retro-element at a new chromosomal site. Understanding A3G's role in activated CD4 T cells could lead to a new strategy against HIV. "If we can find a way to partially block A3G assemb...

Peering into the shadow world of RNA

...l of gene transcription,?Nishikura says. “Cellular machinery transcribes genetic DNA into messenger RNA from which the proteins of the body are produced. In the last several years, however, scientists investigating the biological meaning of other forms of RNA that don’t code for proteins have discovered that t...

Comments, experts and background on the 2006 Nobel Prize in chemistry

...RNA then carries DNA's information out to cellular machinery that produces proteins. Transcription is critical for life. If it stops, cells no longer produce enzymes and other proteins essential for life and health. With no new protein synthesized, an animal will die within days. Death can also result from t...

RNA map provides first comprehensive understanding of alternative splicing

...ters, altering the outcome of the how the splicing machinery was able to assemble in a manner that again confor...hinery, in another it enhanced the ability of this machinery to assemble the right way and use an alternatively spliced site that is otherwise poorly utilized. ...

Protein splicing upsets the DNA colinearity paradigm

...e created by 'proteasomes,' components of the cell machinery that cut foreign proteins into peptides that are then displayed on the cell surface for recognition and destruction by CD8+ T lymphocytes. However, the Belgium/USA team has found that proteasomes can also splice the peptide fragments together in a re...

University of Iowa scientists explore function of 'junk DNA'

...nal assertions, they discovered that the molecular machinery used to express these microRNAs is different than that used to express RNA that encodes proteins. Expression of the microRNAs required an enzyme called RNA Polymerase III (Pol III) rather than the RNA Polymerase II (Pol II), which mediates expression...

A key antibody, IgG, links cells' capture and disposal of germs

...omes in just a third the time it took the cellular machinery to process uncoated beads, 15 minutes versus 45 minutes. "This process is central to the human immune response," Nohturfft says. "But some of the most destructive microbial pathogens, such as those responsible for tuberculosis and salmonellosis, a...

Scientists discover toxin that causes gastro disease

...because it cuts an essential component of the cell machinery in half, therefore disabling it," he said. As well as learning how the toxin works, the scientists have also determined its three-dimensional structure, which will aid in the development of treatments for toxin-related diseases. "This toxin b...

Regulating the nuclear architecture of the cell

...ensity and where the DNA is more accessible to the machinery of gene transcription. By contrast, heterochromatin is dense and contains relatively few genes; most of the DNA in heterochromatin, including numerous short repeated sequences, does not code for proteins. Heterochromatin is typically found at the...

Engineer ramps up protein production, develops versatile viral spheres

...re robust because they use just the protein-making machinery of cells. To harvest just the parts he needs, Swartz literally rips cells open by applying intense shear forces. For one of his more recent contributions to developing cell-free techniques, Swartz will receive the Gaden Award at the ACS meeting. Th...

Hope for a more effective and less toxic cancer drug

...r David Huang, explains, "Normally, the cell death machinery is switched on when damaged cells need to be removed. The failure of the machinery to be turned on when it should can lead to cancer. ABT-737 is a 'switch flicker' that kicks the cell...

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