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Tag: "machinery" at biology news

Common cancer gene sends death order to tiny killer

... chains of ribonucleic acid (RNA) made by the same machinery that produces other types of RNA in the cell, such as the messenger RNAs that carry the instructions to make proteins. Once produced, microRNAs stick to messenger RNAs and, like crumpled paper jammed in a copy machine, prevent proteins from being mad...

Simulations unravel outer membrane transport mechanism

...d the outer membrane contains no energy-generating machinery to power the job of hauling large molecules inside. The new study examined an outer membrane transport system that depends on an energy-generating inner membrane protein, TonB. This TonB-dependent transporter (TBDT) contains a beta-barrel domain: ...

Brain holds clues to bipolar disorder

...ties in neuronal plasticity cascades – the complex machinery inside of nerve cells that regulates numerous processes inside the body. Using animal and cellular models, Dr. Manji and colleagues at NIMH showed that disruptions in these pathways resulted in many of the core symptoms of bipolar disorder and explai...

Baumann Lab defines proteins that distinguish chromosome ends from DNA double-strand breaks

...rom DNA double-strand breaks and that the cellular machinery that repairs DNA breaks does not act on telomeres....nimal requirements that would allow the DNA repair machinery to distinguish a chromosome end from a break," said Dr. Baumann. "By establishing an in vitro assay ...

Genome of yellow fever/dengue fever mosquito sequenced

...d by the host -- the individual organism's genetic machinery --to perform biological functions." TEs may be developed as genetic tools to study the interaction between mosquitoes and pathogens, and thus may lead to controls of transmission of disease, Tu said. Control might take the form of a genetic contr...

Newly identified mechanism for silencing genes points to possible anti-cancer strategies

...-silencing mechanism, one that blocks the cellular machinery responsible for translating messenger RNA into pro...hat led us to a mechanism that blocks the cellular machinery that produces protein from messenger RNA." In earlier studies, Shiekhattar identified a three-mol...

Danish researches solve virus puzzle

...archers have investigated how a virus exploits the machinery of human cells to produce the proteins which the virus needs in order to replicate to billions of new vira. The virus penetrates into the host cell where it liberates its RNA which is a copy of the heritage material, DNA. RNA is like a 'cook book' wh...

Revealing the machinery underlying the 'plastic' juvenile brain

...amblyopia. Now, researchers comparing the genetic machinery of juvenile and adult mouse brains undergoing visu...mal light and analyzed the response in the genetic machinery of the visual cortex in each animal's brain. They found that the brains of the juvenile mice show...

Get a whiff of this: Smell test could sniff out serious health problems

...eptible to harm because there is less neurological machinery in the brain devoted to processing the sense of smell. “So, that’s the reason it might be acting a little bit like the canary in the mineshaft. Because it’s more fragile, when you have insult to the brain, it may be sensitive to loss earlier in the d...

Biodiesel study targets cleaner air, cleaner engines

...e, biodiesel has never been tested on agricultural machinery in Canada and has not yet been widely used by farmers. It is hoped the research results ?expected in early May ?will help increase demand for biodiesel, which in turn will increase market opportunities for recycled materials and oils and give farmers...

'Marathon mice' elucidate little-known muscle type

... coactivators work with other cellular factors and machinery to control the activity of other genes. While earlier studies had found that the related coactivator PGC-1â plays a role in determining muscle type, the role of PGC-1â wasn't known. "The muscle from the PGC-1â transgenic mice was strikingly redder...

Bacterial walls come tumbling down

... newer antibiotics work by blocking a piece of the machinery bacteria use to construct their durable outer wall..., protective coatings, bacteria die. The enzymatic machinery (known as PBP2) studied by Strynadka's group has two main parts: One end assembles long sugar fibers...

McBride shows DNA detective work with paper-eating bacteria that 'glide'

...ria, McBride suspects that they use the same basic machinery to move. And there may be another connection. F. johnsoniae doesn't eat cellulose, but it is able to digest a similar carbohydrate polymer, chitin. Like cellulose, chitin, which is found in the hard shells of lobsters and insects, is also difficult...

Synthetic peptide targets latent papilloma virus infections

... nucleus of the cell and makes use of the cellular machinery to generate more copies of itself. Each cell can house hundreds of plasmids. When the cell divides into two daughter cells, the plasmids glom onto the chromosomes so as not be left behind, and are copied and delivered along with the duplicate chrom...

Renegade RNA -- Clues to cancer and normal growth

... wandering far away from the cell's protein-making machinery and into the nucleus, where the cell's genetic material is kept. The researchers then stuck the same six-block end onto another type of small RNA, a small-interfering RNA or siRNA that turns off genes. This also forced the siRNA into the nucleus. ...

Researchers create artificial enzyme that mimics the body's internal engine

...le. It is also a crucial component of the cellular machinery that generates energy in our body. With such impressive credentials, you might expect that scientists would have a clear understanding of how CcO works. But they don't, according to James P. Collman, professor emeritus of chemistry at Stanford Univer...

DNA ends: Common tool, different job

...ok like broken strands of DNA that a cell's repair machinery is designed to fix. This has been a long-standing puzzle, because mending chromosome ends as though they were double-strand breaks would result in either unregulated degradation or end-to-end fusions. Such repair events are lethal for the genome, and...

Jefferson researchers' discovery may change thinking on how viruses invade the brain

...hought to tether viruses to the cellular transport machinery in order to get there. But Dr. Schnell and his co-workers found that this protein complex is instead a "transcription factor" that plays a role in virus reproduction. "We think that this finding has implications not only for rabies but many viru...

Scientists unlock mystery of embryonic stem cell signaling pathway

...triking new insights into the molecular regulatory machinery inside embryonic stem cells,?adds Martin Pera, Ph.D., director of the Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine at the Keck School of Medicine. “His team has identified a chemical that controls a critical switch that enables stem cells to multip...

Buckyballs used as 'passkey' into cancer cells

..., form a protective cocoon around the cell's inner machinery and its DNA blueprints. "Drugs are far more effective if they're delivered through the membrane, directly into the cell," said lead researcher Andrew Barron. "Viruses, which are often toxic, long ago developed ways of sneaking through cell walls. ...

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