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Genomic Analysis Uncovers New Targets for HIV Vaccine

...tious disease," Goldstein said. "Past studies have looked at individual candidate genes. Since different people respond differently to infections, a better understanding of how immune system genes control responses to infections should help us to design better treatments and more effective vaccines." Added...

Common cancer gene sends death order to tiny killer

...53 and the other containing healthy p53. They then looked for any of the 500 known human microRNAs that are activated only in cells containing p53. It turned out that the miR-34a gene is turned on by p53, and in fact, experiments demonstrated that p53 binds directly to the genetic material near miR-34a t...

Ancient DNA traces the woolly mammoth's disappearance

...pattern in the new study, Barnes and Lister’s team looked to the extinct woolly mammoth. What they found, however, was an “interesting pattern, not like those of the other species.” Their genetic data indicate that Siberian mammoths expanded from a small base some time before sixty thousand years ago. Mo...

Rising skin cancer rates are more likely to affect wealthy people, says 12-year review

...f British Journal of Dermatology. Researchers who looked at official cancer statistics for nearly 23,000 pa... Social Care Trust. “The three skin cancers we looked at all increased with age, with the exception of malignant melanomas, which showed a decrease in men...

Researchers shed light on shrinking of chromosomes

...roscopes, researchers led by Jan Ellenberg at EMBL looked at living mammalian cells to find out how and when chromosomes shorten during cell division. Condensation begins early, when the cell starts preparing for division, and the chromosomes become shorter and shorter until they are about to separate and...

Nurtured chimps rake it in

...ditions (laboratory chimpanzees). The experiments looked at how the chimpanzees used rakes in order to retrieve a fruit yoghurt reward. The overall study examined not only whether the chimpanzees understood the properties of the tool, but also whether they understood the reasons why the tool worked. Th...

Exploring the dark matter of the genome

...k to the matching heterochromatin sequence. And we looked for sequences similar to ones already known from protein databases." These standard approaches to finding genes, Smith says, are relatively easy to perform in euchromatin but harder in heterochromatin, "because it is so rich in repeats." Smith an...

Cancer stem cells similar to normal stem cells can thwart anti-cancer agents

... cancer stem cells in the lung cancer samples that looked and behaved much like normal adult lung tissue stem cells. Both the cancer and normal stem cells were protected equally by multiple drug resistance transporters, even if the bulk of the tumor responded to chemotherapy. According to Dr. Donnenberg,...

Prey not hard-wired to fear predators

...rived.” said Dr. Berger. Berger’s study, which looked at 19 areas including the Russian Far East, Greenland, Canada, and the U.S., demonstrated that caribou, elk, and moose are all affected by both the loss and return of their predators in ways that are important for conservation and ecosystem integrity...

The mouflons of the Kerguelen archipelago

...nnes Zoo. “We took the DNA from these samples, and looked at specific genetic sites,“ explained Renaud Kaeuffer. “We expected that the genetic diversity of this population of mouflons would be very homogeneous, and that this genetic diversity would decline over time. Instead, we observed the opposite.” ...

Study identifies 5 genetic themes key to keeping stem cells in a primitive, flexible state

...any genes expressed by stem cells, the researchers looked for genes whose expression was also correlated with the master stem cell regulator gene Oct4. They also applied very rigorous analysis methods, using data from StemBase, the largest stem cell gene expression database in the world. Designed by bioinfo...

Researchers use MRI to predict recovery after spinal cord injury

...romise (MCC) and length of lesion (LOL). They also looked at other factors, including bleeding within the spine, swelling and soft tissue injury. The results showed that severity of MSCC, bleeding and cord swelling were key indicators of a poor prognosis after SCI. Conversely, the absence of these sympto...

An 'elegant' idea proves its worth 25 years later

...on University and the Medical College of Wisconsin looked back at 299 urea cycle disorder patients with a total of 1,181 hyperammonemia "episodes" from 118 hospitals around the United States from August 1980 until March 2005. The regimen consisted of high-dose intravenous sodium phenylacetate and sodium...

Hawaiian treasure, macadamia nuts good for the heart

...e risks according to Penn State researchers. "We looked at macadamia nuts because they are not currently included in the health claim for tree nuts, while other tree nuts are recommended as part of a healthy diet," says Dr. Amy E. Griel, recent Ph.D. recipient in nutritional sciences. "Macadamia nuts have...

Pistachios lower cholesterol, provide antioxidants

...dition, during this study researchers, researchers looked at the effects of these diets on oxidized LDL and on antioxidants in the blood. "We were trying to see if the increased levels of antioxidants provided by pistachios could reduce inflammation and oxidation," says Gebauer. Pistachios contain mor...

Salk scientists hammer out a pathway that promotes muscle cell survival in mice

...REB acts to regulate HDAC, Berdeaux and colleagues looked for phosphorylation sites in the HDAC protein. They discovered that one of many proteins turned on and off by the CREB switch, a little-known enzyme called salt-inducible kinase-1, or SIK1, specifically recognizes and phosphorylates HDAC. Then, t...

Amphibians in losing race with environmental change

...ld's leading experts on amphibian decline. "But looked at in a different way, it's not just that there are threats and pressures amphibians have to deal with," Blaustein said. "There have always been threats, and these have been some of the most adaptive and successful vertebrate animals on Earth. They w...

Climate change impacts stream life

... climate change on stream species. The study looked at the effects of climate change on stream macroinvertebrates - animals that can be seen with the naked eye such as crustaceans, snails and larval insects including stoneflies or mayflies. Professor Ormerod, said: "Streams and rivers are likely ...

A frown or a smile? Children with autism can't discern

... role in evaluating emotions. While these children looked at the direct-gaze faces, the VLPFC became active; with the averted-gaze pictures, it quieted down. In contrast, the autistic children showed no activity in this region of the brain whether they were looking at faces with a direct or an indirect gaze...

Traumas like Sept. 11 make brains more reactive to fear

...elates of trauma exposure, even in people who have looked resilient," said lead author Barbara Ganzel, Cornell M.S. '99, Ph.D. '02, a postdoctoral researcher in human development at Cornell. "Up until now, there has been very little evidence of that." Using functional magnetic resonance imaging to see how...

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