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Scratch no more: Gene for itch sensation discovered

...e different from normal mice. "The research was a little disappointing at first," Chen says. "The knockout ..."The fact that the knockout mice still scratched a little suggests there are additional itch receptors," Chen says. "We know of some proteins that are similar...

Modeling the restless brain

... of work being done by neuroscientists, relatively little is known about how the human brain is structured -- how, for example the hundreds (the number is unknown) of regions in the human brain are connected. The computer model created by Sporns and Honey suggests that this very pattern of connectivity is c...

The insect vector always bites twice

...s from IRD research unit UR 024 studied this still little known response with the aim of identifying in the arthropod vector saliva the immunogenic proteins responsible. They called on immunological techniques to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively, in the serum sampled from human populations living i...

A new plant-bacterial symbiotic mechanism promising for crop applications

...ern the leguminous plants of temperate zones, very little those of the tropics. The team from the IRD’s ‘Laboratoire des Symbioses Tropicales et Méditerranéennes’ and its partners (1), taking as model a symbiosis between a tropical aquatic legume, Aeschynomene, and Bradyrhizobium, bacteria of the Rhizob...

Newly found sensing system enables certain bacteria to resist human immune defenses

...emier target for antimicrobial drug discovery, but little corresponding work has been done with gram-positive bacteria,” Dr. Otto says. “Our group is excited by what we have demonstrated—an efficient and unique way that gram-positive bacteria control resistance—and we are continuing our investigation of the...

Research shows cord blood comparable to matched bone marrow

...at cord blood is banked and readily available with little notice is a great advantage. Today, leukemia patients can wait months for an appropriately matched bone marrow donor, during which time their disease might return,” Wagner said. “For the first time, the timing of transplantation can be dictated by t...

Alzheimer's disease to quadruple worldwide by 2050

...could delay the onset of Alzheimer’s disease by as little as one year would reduce prevalence of the disease by 12 million fewer cases in 2050. A similar delay in both the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease would result in a smaller overall reduction of 9.2 million cases by 2050, because slower di...

Researchers shed light on shrinking of chromosomes

...ncluding cancer can arise. But so far we know only little about condensation, a process crucial to the successful separation of chromosomes. Using powerful microscopes, researchers led by Jan Ellenberg at EMBL looked at living mammalian cells to find out how and when chromosomes shorten during cell division...

Undergraduate research shows leaderless honeybee organizing

...efore,” he noted. “What was interesting was how little attention the workers pay the queen – until it became time to go – to become airborne. Then they started interacting with her at very high rates, and performing the ‘worker piping’ signal on her. This interaction is a behavior that nobody had describ...

Newly discovered antibody may be body's natural defense against Alzheimer's

...tudies demonstrated that IVIG initially bound very little single-molecule ("monomer") beta amyloid in a test tube. However, it gathered up much more of the protein when the amyloid was "aged" in a way that allowed soluble aggregates to form. These beta amyloid "oligomers" can grow into insoluble "fibril...

Physicist cracks women's random but always lucky choice of X chromosome

...s specific location on the chromosome but they had little idea as to why this should happen randomly to one X chromosome’s gene and not the other. Scientists are extremely uncomfortable with this randomness and have sought a clear scientific reason as to why one X chromosome was switched off rather than ...

Massive herds of animals found to still exist in Southern Sudan

...e. To their surprise, the results in Boma showed little difference in the numbers of white-eared kob counted in the ’80s, which at the time was proclaimed one of the largest wildlife migrations on the planet. “We estimated more than 800,000 kob in Southern Sudan,” said Fay. “If you were a gold miner and...

Study investigates 'divorce' among Galapagos seabirds

...n mating season rolls around again, a male looks a little ragged from taking care of junior, his mate is likely to choose another. A male’s capacity to raise offspring, a quality that can vary with time, may carry more weight with a mate than stellar genes or past breeding success, Maness said. She used...

New findings challenge established views on human genome

...es that do not encode proteins, which we knew very little about before,” said Ewan Birney, Ph.D., head of ge... The new data indicate the genome contains very little unused sequences and, in fact, is a complex, interwoven network. In this network, genes are just one...

Plastic that grows on trees

...hose products that make oil so valuable, with very little of the residual impurities that have made the quest so daunting. “What we have done that no one else has been able to do is convert glucose directly in high yields to a primary building block for fuel and polyesters,” said Z. Conrad Zhang, senior ...

Exploring the dark matter of the genome

... "Most researchers thought heterochromatin had little or no function, because it appeared to lack the protein-coding genes that occur so richly in the chromosomes' more accessible and better-studied euchromatin," says Karpen, a senior scientist in Berkeley Lab's Life Sciences Division and an adjunct pro...

Runners -- Let thirst be your guide

...rst will reliably remind you to drink, losing that little is not sufficient to cause any significant health problems,” Verbalis says. “Many of us are often dehydrated to such small degrees, and it does not significantly affect us.” But he adds that endurance exercisers who don’t want to rely on their bod...

UCF nanoparticle offers promise for treating glaucoma

...ave shown not only high penetration rates but also little patient discomfort. The miniscule size of the nanoparticles makes them less abrasive than some of the complex polymers now used in most eye drops. Seal and his team created a specialized cerium oxide nanoparticle and bound it with a compound tha...

Researchers demonstrate way to control tree height

...lest of them could be difficult to even find, tiny little “shrublets” among the flowers in the field site. ...look pretty much normal, just a lot smaller, and a little more compact or bushy.” Altogether, the researchers used seven distinct kinds of genes and more t...

Turn-ons and turn-offs for neurons

...nome, most also expressed in neurons, there is now little doubt that neurons respond to challenging environments by adjusting the expression of genes for appropriate brain functions. Stress, addiction, learning and disease are all believed to change neuronal gene expression by mechanisms involving gene acce...

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