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Tag: "lipids" at biology news

Scientists Replicate Hepatitis C Virus in Laboratory

...have the HCV viral envelope, a protective shell of lipids and proteins that surrounds the viral RNA in fully-formed HCV. The naked HCV construct was then placed into human liver cells in a cell culture medium. The NIDDK scientists found evidence of HCV proteins and HCV RNA within the human liver cells in t...

The secret lives of whales

...worldwide. Because of their ability to break down lipids in cold water, these animals and their bacterial garden may hold a key to better cold water washing detergents. But more importantly, study of whale worms and other whale-fall species help scientists understand how life has diversified in specialized...

Researchers identify target for cancer drugs

...ssor protein PTEN keeps Akt in check by destroying lipids in the cell membrane that normally draw Akt to the surface. In a sense, PTEN keeps a leash on Akt and thus suppresses cell division. But when PTEN is mutated and unable to function, Akt breaks free. It makes its way to the cell membrane where other ...

Tiny scaffolding allows stem cells to become working fat cells

...lete. At that point, the cells were able to absorb lipids a hallmark task of fat cells. Researchers were able to extract RNA from the cells, just as they can from naturally occurring fat cells, and from that proved that the cells expressed the normally expected array of genes, and subsequent proteins and d...

Scientists discover that host cell lipids facilitate bacterial movement

...ized from PIP2 by an enzyme called PI3-kinase. The lipids attract and modify the functions of proteins invol... his colleagues decided to explore the roles these lipids play in Listeria infection. "We had expected to see PIP2 and PIP3 only at the very back of Listeria...

Molecule that usually protects infection-fighting cells may cause plaque deposits inside arteries

... worsen plaque buildup in arteries. "The oxidized lipids are cleared out by macrophage cells, but the lipids themselves are very toxic to cells and promote apoptosis (cell death)," Dr. Miyazaki said. "Therefor...

Anammox bacteria produce nitrogen gas in oceans' snackbar

...beled nutrients, depth profiles of unique membrane lipids (ladder molecules), fluorescence microscopy and DNA analyses of water samples was used to proof the abundance of anammox bacteria in the Atlantic Ocean. The discovery of anammox bacteria in the open ocean has major consequences for our understanding ...

Natural Killers Could Lead to New Hepatitis Treatments

...th a witches' brew of nutrients, toxins, proteins, lipids and other chemicals. Thus, immune guardians that patrol the liver must tolerate many foreign molecules, yet respond readily to infection. “It wasn't clear how NKT cells survey (tissue), or even if they survey at all,?said Littman. To visualize the a...

Lipids get new comprehensive classification system

In response to the growing number of lipids expected to be discovered through lipidomics and i...rstanding of the structure and function of all the lipids within a cell. The consortium is a large collaborative effort led by the University of California, S...

Insulin pulses keep the liver lean

...ver, insulin promotes the synthesis and storage of lipids and carbohydrates and blocks their breakdown and r... to alleviate chronically elevated blood and liver lipids in patients with diabetes. Najjar et al.: "Insulin acutely decreases hepatic fatty acid synthase ac...

Beyond genes: Lipid helps cell wall protein fold into proper shape

... Dowhan said. "People used to assume that specific lipids made no difference." In the JBC paper, Dowhan and colleagues looked at how a protein called GabP, which transports an amino acid across the membrane of the bacterium E. coli, is affected by the presence of a phospholipid named phosphatidylethanolami...

'Cookbook recipes' would cure disease with nontoxic DNA delivery systems

...he structure and interaction of negatively charged lipids and DNA molecules have created a "cookbook" for a ... comprehensive study to see how negatively charged lipids stick to negatively charged DNA and self-organize into structures. "Many research groups have made ...

Newly recognized gene mutation may reduce seeds, resurrect plants

...ng seed development. Scientists already know that lipids play an important role in signaling developmental changes in plants and animals, and that other plants and animals, including humans, have genes similar to RST1. Jenks and his team now want to determine the exact role of RST1 in lipid signaling that ...

Baby's genes affect mom's cholesterol levels

...is composed of proteins called apolipoproteins and lipids such as cholesterol and triglycerides." explains D...at these lipoproteins are the forms that carry the lipids to the placenta. The researchers looked at several genetic variations (also known as polymorphisms...

Technique offers new view of dynamic biological landscape

..., interconnected pathway synthesizes and regulates lipids and secreted proteins in yeast. Weissman and his colleagues also needed a way to quantify the epistatic effects of interacting mutant genes on the cells' viability. Since yeast form round colonies when grown in culture dishes, they could measure th...

Liquid ventilation

...lack surfactant, a compound formed by proteins and lipids that avoids the lungs folding in on themselves before the baby gets stronger. The respirators usually employd in these cases provide artificial surfactant, but not always in sufficient amounts to provide correct therapy. In order to alleviate this...

Wrinkled membranes create novel drug-delivery system

...a drug inside lipid bilayer membranes. Some of the lipids are then "sewn together" through a polymerization process. Cooling the capsules by 10 degrees Celsius causes the capsules to crumple and collapse like deflated beach balls, releasing the drug. "The release rate can be controlled by the amount of wri...

Measuring artery repair cells could become new heart disease test

...isk factors we could measure, such as cholesterol, lipids and some new markers like c-reactive protein," Povsic continued. "We're learning that atherosclerosis is a balancing act between damage and repair, and now we may have a test that gives us insight into the repair portion of the equation." "If the re...

Mushrooms as good an antioxidant source as more colorful veggies

...sed rates of oxidation, which can damage proteins, lipids carbohydrates and DNA. She adds, "The ORAC assay does not tell what happens in the human body but this assay is currently under investigation as to how it can predict physiological activity." The Penn State study showed that the anti-oxidant effe...

First 'encyclopedia' of nuclear receptors reveals organisms' focus on sex, food

...ol many processes, such as the use of diet-derived lipids as fuel for the body. "You see that certain receptors have similar patterns in certain tissues. The common themes suggest that those receptors together regulate a similar regulatory circuit," said Dr. Mangelsdorf, an investigator in UT Southwestern...

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