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Prenatal Stress Keeps Infants, Toddlers up at Night, Study Says

...y be set early on, perhaps even before birth, said lead author Thomas OConnor, Ph.D., associate professor of Psychiatry at the University of Rochester Medical Center. This is another piece in the unfolding mystery of just how much the prenatal environment may shape a childs health and development for year...

Genomic Analysis Uncovers New Targets for HIV Vaccine

...s than others," Goldstein. "This should ultimately lead to novel targets for vaccines, the primary goal of CHAVI." Two of the polymorphisms found were in genes controlling the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, which plays a major role in the immune system by identifying foreign invaders and "tagging"...

Scratch no more: Gene for itch sensation discovered

...entral nervous system. The discovery could rapidly lead to new treatments directly targeting itchiness and providing relief for chronic and severe itching. The "itch gene" is GRPR (gastrin-releasing peptide receptor), which codes for a receptor found in a very small population of spinal cord nerve cells ...

FDA sees nanotech challenges in every product category it regulates

...t from their larger counterparts, they potentially lead to different safety issues. The report’s recommendations that FDA provide clear nanotechnology-associated guidance for manufacturers in all areas of agency responsibility are an important move towards ensuring the benefits of nanotechnology are reali...

Common cancer gene sends death order to tiny killer

...s. If it's a widespread phenomenon, the work could lead to treatments that aim to restore the missing microRNA to cancer cells. ...

Research identifies protein that signals flowering in squash plants

...duce sub-genomic RNA species, whose presence could lead to confounding results. The authors found that C. moschata plants could be induced to flower under the normally non-inducing LD conditions following ectopic expression of FT by the ZYMV vector. Analysis of such induced plants showed that the infectio...

Researchers discover inherited mutation for leukemia

...o the process of natural cell death. They may even lead to new strategies for treating the disease. Th... turn off genes that control cell growth, and that lead to tumor growth. "Our findings identify for the first time a gene that appears to be associated ...

Blood test may help signal tumor's remission, return in throat cancer patients

...a return of throat cancer. The findings could help lead to the development of a blood test that enables doctors to detect the recurrence of throat cancer early on, when there is still time to pursue a second line of treatment, such as surgery or drug therapy. “Cancers of the head and neck are insidious b...

Cigarette smoke alters DNA in sperm, genetic damage could pass to offspring

...mposition of off-spring.” said Carole Yauk, Ph.D., lead author of the study and research scientist in the Mutagenesis Section of Health Canada’s Environmental and Occupational Toxicology Division. “We have known that mothers who smoke can harm their fetuses, and here we show evidence that fathers can pote...

Discovery in orange cauliflower may lead to more nutritious crops

...c mutation behind the unusual hue. The finding may lead to more nutritious staple crops, including maize, potato, rice, sorghum and wheat. The genetic mutation recently isolated by Cornell plant geneticist Li Li and colleagues -- and described in the December issue of The Plant Cell -- allows the vegeta...

Researchers track how spores break out of dormant state

...pment.” The researchers, including Marco Plomp, lead author at LLNL, and those from Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute and Northwestern University, used AFM to identify disassembly of the outer spore coat rodlet structures, which appear to be structurally similar to amyloid fibrils that hav...

Modeling the restless brain

...idual persons. Sporns said this research could lead to clinical applications, offering new diagnostic tools for brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease that are known to affect the brain's connections. It also could help explain why humans do not think alike. "If fluctuations in brain activity...

The insect vector always bites twice

...n activities. Malaria, sleeping sickness and so on lead to the death of millions of people in the world. African countries are particularly strongly hit. The expansion of Dengue fever and the recent epidemics of Chikungunya and West Nile disease illustrate the trend. The pathogens responsible for these d...

Hormone helps mice 'hibernate,' survive starvation

... fat in the blood, we believe this new pathway may lead to a new class of drugs that will impact many human conditions,” he said. ...

Largest synthetic gene ever built offers insights into anti-malarial drug resistance

...w is to understand molecularly how these mutations lead to drug resistance. So far, the researchers have found that two of the three resistance genes act to change the pH (acid/alkaline balance) within the parasite when it is growing inside the red cell. These changes affect how drugs like chloroquine ent...

Loss of stem cells correlates with premature aging in animal study

...the integrity of their DNA, and multiple divisions lead to natural breaks in DNA. But when these stem cells are needed, their progeny can rapidly divide and are able to replenish the tissue with new cells. Brown explains that in the current study the mouse cells without ATR had an overwhelming amount ...

Pesticides choke pathway for nature to produce nitrogen for crops

...hytochemical recruitment signal," said the study's lead author, Jennifer E. Fox, a postdoctoral researcher in the Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Oregon. "In essence, the agrichemicals are cutting the lines of communication between the host plant and symbiotic bacteria. Th...

Study shows big power of small RNAs, not just proteins, in halting cancer

...ic death of cancer cells. “Our findings certainly lead to a deeper understanding of a critical tumor suppression mechanism but also may provide insight into how to best engage the p53 pathway to treat cancer by killing tumor cells,” said He. ...

In mice, drug protects against diabetes and atherosclerosis

...y add, the results suggest that targeting aP2 "can lead to a new class of powerful therapeutic agents to prevent and treat metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis." Said Hotamisligil, "This work turned out to be a perfect example of out-of-the box thinking, inter-institutional an...

New study finds genetically engineered crops could play a role in sustainable agriculture

...entist of The Nature Conservancy. According to lead author, Michele Marvier, of Santa Clara University, “We can now answer the question: Do Bt crops have effects on beneficial insects and worms" The answer is that it depends to a large degree upon the type of comparison one makes. When Bt crops are c...

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