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Tag: "kind" at biology news

The first laugh: New study posits evolutionary origins of two distinct types of laughter

...tated issue is whether such laughter is similar in kind to laughter following from humor." Using empirical evidence from across disciplines, including theory and data from work on mirror neurons, evolutionary psychology, and multilevel selection theory, the researchers detail the evolutionary trajectory ...

Fruit fly research set to revolutionize study of birth defects

...n right, the successful use of fruit flies in this kind of study is a revelation to the researchers who view it as an efficient model for the initial testing of "rescue" therapies to try to prevent birth defects. Scientists can study the effect of the drug on the genes of as many as three generations of f...

Researchers develop new method for studying 'mental time travel'

...n state, the researchers were able to predict what kind of item the subjects would recall next, several se...recall. We are hopeful that, in the long run, this kind of work will help psychologists develop better theories of how people strategically cue memory, and ...

Dangerous tricksters: Some bacterie use immune cells to reproduce

... is flooded with oxygen radicals and acid. Another kind of membrane bags, the lysosomes, merge with the phagosome and confront the microbe with highly reactive digestive enzymes. A few hours after the first alarm bells have rung there is nothing left of the bacterium, and the potential danger has been eli...

Polymer gel can block toxic leakage problem in gene therapy

... radiation oncology department studied a preferred kind of anti-cancer gene therapy that uses relatively harmless adenoviruses to infect tumor cells. Once in a targeted tumor, genes in these genetically modified viruses are designed to express their modified genes to manufacture proteins that can either t...

Nanoparticles, nanoshells, nanotubes: How tiny specks may provide powerful tools against cancer

...mary and metastatic breast cancer cells. A novel kind of "nanocomplex" consisting of a microscopic, lipi...archers. But now, scientists are combining a novel kind of "nanocomplex" consisting of a microscopic, lipid-based liposome and an antibody along with gene t...

Scientists observe how a close bond activates the immune system

...ndritic cells, another type of immune cell, form a kind of molecular embrace, or immunological synapse, to relay information about intruders. The communication between these immune cells hasn't been well understood because scientists had no suitable techniques to manipulate it. Now that problem has been...

Max Planck researchers make a breakthrough in plant stem cell research

...a particular tissue," Lohmann says. Only with this kind of mechanism, is it possible that the same hormone has different effects in different tissues, depending on which genetic conditions it encounters. ...

New brain scan technology could save babies' lives

...r disadvantages, MONSTIR, the first scanner of its kind in the world, uses an innovative technique called optical tomography to generate images showing how the brain is working. In optical tomography, light passes through body tissue and is then analysed by computer to provide information about the tissue...

Finding rewrites the evolutionary history of the origin of potatoes

...xplains. "Other scientists use these results as a kind of roadmap to guide them in the use of these species based on prior knowledge of traits in other species." Spooner spends about two months each year trekking through the mountains of South America, collecting and identifying wild potatoes and resear...

Discovering the first steps in transcription-coupled repair

...he protein CSB, which in a mutated form causes one kind of Cockayne Syndrome, was known to recognize stalled RNAPII; CSB was presumed to be involved in initiating transcription-coupled repair, but by what means was unknown. In addition, there were hints for an important but unknown role for the protein XP...

Why we give: New study finds evidence of generosity among our early human ancestors

...conditional cooperation in humans. "Without some kind of payback, altruism can be a very costly endeavor in small-scale societies subsisting on wild foods," Gurven writes. "This study shows that people indeed share more with those who give more to them?[but] families who cannot produce much food, close ...

Bats use touch receptors on wings to fly, catch prey, study finds

... 1930s when researchers discovered echolocation, a kind of biological sonar found in bats, dolphins and a few other animals. Bats use echolocation to identify and navigate their environment by emitting calls and listening to the echoes that return from various objects. Zook believes the touch-sensitive r...

Twin molecular scissors link creation of microRNAs with gene-silencing

... primary strategies for regulating its genome is a kind of targeted gene silencing orchestrated by small molecules called microRNAs, or miRNAs. First observed only a few years ago, these molecules appear to inactivate messenger RNA, itself responsible for translating genes into proteins. Scientists have b...

'Good' bacteria could save patients from infection infection by deadlier ones

... live in the hospital environment, thus creating a kind of natural protection against the deadlier strains. To test his hypothesis, Spigelman suggests experimenting with antibiotic-free hospitals in which harmless bacteria would be free to exist and there would be no environmental "incentive" for the mo...

A salty tale: New bacterial genome sequenced from ancient salterns

...ngodin says, the double system may be redundant, a kind of biological back-up. Because S. ruber grows in high salt, its enzymes are strikingly stable. And that means the bacterium may hold promise for industrial applications. Meanwhile, TIGR's collaborators are pursuing studies of Spain's salterns, test...

Scientists directly view immune cells interacting to avert autoimmunity

...n each of the two cell types interact with a third kind of cell. The role of the third cell type -- the antigen-presenting dendritic cell -- in preventing autoimmune attacks of healthy tissue has been a focus of intense research over the last 15 years. The new study supports one contending hypothesis: It...

Infant transplant patients resist infections that kill adult AIDS patients

...us infections and another 1 billion of a different kind of immune system cell, the B cell, which produces antibodies. Yet, when the Mayo researchers looked at the immune system of infant heart transplant patients, they found that post transplant the infants have as few as 1,000 T cells -- one ten-thousand...

MRSA use amoeba to spread, new research shows

...hogenic". "In many ways this may reflect how this kind of pathogenic behaviour first evolved. A good example is the bacterium that causes legionnaires disease. Probably it was pathogenic long before humans and other animals arrived on the evolutionary scene. Even today, it has no known animal host". "...

Portable cocaine sensor developed at UC Santa Barbara

... on this work.Elaine Doctor said, "At first I felt kind of intimidated by all the graduate students who are used to all the equipment, but we caught on really fast and everyone was really helpful. I felt honored to help America's war on drugs." Elaine plans to continue her studies in the sciences, either ...

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