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Genomic Analysis Uncovers New Targets for HIV Vaccine

...e turned off by HIV when it enters the body, which keeps the immune system from recognizing the virus as foreign. HLA-C however is not thought to be turned off by HIV-1. The new results suggest that for some individuals at least HLA-C is involved in controlling HIV-1. Since HIV-1 appears unable to shut off...

Researchers examine carbon capture and storage to combat global warming

...d like an upside-down bowl, that traps the gas and keeps it from escaping, the researchers said. Safety smarts ''The goal of carbon sequestration is to permanently store the carbon dioxide,'' Benson said, ''permanent meaning very, very long-term, geological time periods.'' The greatest concern s...

ASU research shows connection between testosterone, dietary antioxidants and bird coloration

... “Researchers in animal behavior often study what keeps sexual signals like bright colors or elaborate songs ‘honest,’ or why all individuals cannot produce them ad nausea and try to get mates,” said McGraw. “The reason typically is that long tails and fancy dances incur costs. Testosterone, for example, ...

Salk scientists hammer out a pathway that promotes muscle cell survival in mice

...nse to exercise by releasing a brake that normally keeps these genes off. Learning how this pathway affects cellular responses may provide clues for improving cellular health in diseases affecting muscle and other cell types. "In addition to muscle, this regulatory circuit is present in brain and heart...

'Insulator' helps silence genes in dormant herpes virus

...stitute have discovered a molecular mechanism that keeps HSV-1 activation restricted to a single gene for months or even years. The researchers have identified an "insulator" ?a stretch of DNA about 800 base pairs long ?that serves as a physical barrier between active and inactive regions of the virus geno...

Keeping the immune system from starting a 'food fight'

...s. When food enters the system, STAMP2 normally keeps the immunity response "button" from getting pushed, Hotamisligil said. "We suggest that, over time, the accumulation of small cellular stresses due to daily changes and fluctuations in nutrients in STAMP2-deficient mice may lead to the activation ...

Rare cell prevents rampant brain activity

...ncovered a new mechanism controlling how the brain keeps its neuronal activity in check. The human brain consists of around a hundred million nerve cells linked together by around ten billion contact junctions called synapses. The activity of this extremely complex network is regulated through a dynamic ...

In obesity, brain becomes 'unaware' of fat

...tical fat hormone—causing a cascade of events that keeps energy balance in check—fails to engage. Meanwhile, the rest of the metabolic pathway remains ready to respond. “Obesity is not a failure of will power, it is a biological failure,?said Michael Cowley of Oregon Health & Science University of his...

OHSU surgeon implants donated tissue allografts

...n be maintained for up to 28 days in a medium that keeps the cells viable and the tissue healthy so it continues to live after transplantation. Cooperation between Community Tissue Services, which has been serving Portland and the greater Oregon community for decades, and the tissue preparation and coo...

How appetite-stimulating brain cells work overtime during fasting

...s how neurons 'learn' that food is missing, and it keeps them ready to eat when food is introduced." The mechanism involved is very similar to the one that regulates core body temperature in peripheral body tissues, Diano added. Thyroid hormones are known to play major roles during development as wel...

Is there a pilot in the insect?

...rs call an "optic flow regulator" is a reflex that keeps the optic flow, and thus the speed/altitude ratio, at a constant value. If the insect changes speed, this reflex will make it change altitude so that ratio remains constant. Adjusting the speed/altitude ratio means that the insect has no need to meas...

Sleep enforces the temporal sequence in memory

...thday party. However it is not clear how the brain keeps track of the temporal sequence in such memories: did Paul spill a glass of wine before or after Mary left the party? Previous findings from a research group headed by Jan Born at the University of Lübeck have confirmed the widely held view that lon...

Chemical switch triggers critical cell activities

...m the right hand to the left hand and on to E2, E1 keeps a relay of these batons flowing. In turn, that keeps the specific biochemical cascade triggered by NEDD8 in action. But in order for the handoff to wo...

Researchers hot on the trail of brain cell degeneration

...als. Blocking Rho activity by genetic modification keeps the protein in an inactive state, and the nerve cells thus survive a previously toxic level of over-stimulation. The study identifies a new factor provoking cell degeneration. It is more than likely that future research will uncover more such fac...

Flavanols in cocoa may offer benefits to the brain

...ulatory system that helps dilate blood vessels and keeps them pliable. Hollenberg fed flavanol-rich cocoa to healthy volunteers who were over age 50 and observed a “striking blood flow response?that evolved over several weeks. “Since this cocoa preparation is so well tolerated, it raises hope that the b...

Tears reveal some of their deepest secrets to researchers

...nk, meibum spreads over the surface of the eye. It keeps the watery middle layer in place, ensuring that our eyes stay moist. Finding these lipids may help scientists better understand the causes of eye-related disorders such as dry eye disease, which affects anywhere from 12 to 14 million Americans, sa...

Reactivated gene shrinks tumors

...ins, acts by interfering with MDM2, an enzyme that keeps p53 levels low. In follow-up studies, the MIT researchers are looking at other types of cancer, such as epithelial (skin) cancer, in their mouse model, and they plan to see if the same approach will also work for tumor suppressors other than p53. ...

Scientists reveal structure of gateways to gene control

...art of this control region and that the nucleosome keeps it locked so the gene cannot be turned on until it is needed," Pugh said. When the gene is needed, the cell's molecular machinery loosens the DNA wrapping around the nucleosome, unlocking the transcription gateway to give access to the cell's molecu...

Widely used iron nanoparticles exhibit toxic effects on neuronal cells

...olymerizes on the particles' surface. This coating keeps the particles from clumping together in an aqueous solution, and facilitates their engulfment by the PC12 cells via an inward pouching of the cell membrane called endocytosis. What happened next was a surprise. Jin's group had initially investigat...

NIH neuroscience microarray consortium launches high-throughput genotyping services

...ser-base of ~10,000 investigators across the world keeps the Consortium current with the demands of the scientific community." The Consortium is comprised of four nationally recognized centers located at Duke University in Durham, NC, the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) in Phoenix, AZ, t...

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