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Tag: "invaders" at biology news

Fox Chase Cancer Center scientists identify immune-system mutation

... known as killer cells because they attack foreign invaders more directly. "The maturation of T cells involves key branch points at which cells choose one of two different pathways, going on to become helper cells or killer cells," Kappes said. His goal is to understand how T cells specialize to do different...

Chemists identify immune system mechanism for methamphetamine binges

...sually produced only in response to large molecule invaders such as proteins, not to small drug molecules," Janda says. "Glycation acts like a linker that allows [the methamphetamine] to be displayed to the immune system, triggering a vaccine-like reaction." Just as a vaccine is able to remove invading patho...

Computational Method Speeds Mapping of Cell Signaling Networks

...ds a source of nutrients, or responding to foreign invaders in the body. In all of these cases, external signals are converted into cellular messages that get passed sequentially from one molecule to another. Tracing the individual pathways that guide information flow inside cells is a difficult task using st...

Reservoirs may accelerate the spread of invasive aquatic species, researchers say

...nden propose they could provide a haven that helps invaders from saline and brackish habitats adapt to fresh water. Several invasive species are suspected to have benefited from the use of reservoirs as avenues, including Daphnia lumholtzi, a water flea from the Old World tropics, and the copepod Eurytemora ...

Genetic defects give the immune system the green light to attack the pancreas

... immune cells that normally work together to fight invaders such as bacteria or viruses, adapting specifically to each new invader. Formed in the thymus gland, T-cells begin as “precursor?cells and mature ?during this time, receptor sites on their outer membrane are shaped to dock with each invader and destro...

MUHC scientists describe genetic resistance to rampant virus

... cell types that hunt-down and terminate unwelcome invaders within our body." Our Natural Killer cells and the pathogens they fight have been locked in an evolutionary arms race for millions of years in an attempt to overwhelm each other. Dr. Vidal and her team have spent the past 10 years studying CMV-resis...

Undesirable expatriates: Preventing the spread of invasive animals

...become economic and ecological burdens. Successful invaders can displace native animals through resource competition, predation or disease-- ushering in biodiversity loss. Globally, invasive species are the second leading cause of animal extinction, preceded only by habitat loss. Not all introduced animals b...

Newly Discovered 'Branding' Process Helps Immune System Cells Pick Their Fights

...new method the immune system uses to label foreign invaders as targets to be attacked. Researchers showed that the immune system can brand foreign proteins by chemically modifying their structure, and that these modifications increased the chances that cells known as lymphocytes would recognize the trespasser...

Fox Chase study shows that weakened T-cell receptor signals change T-cell lineage

...ist disease," said Wiest. "T cells recognize these invaders by means of a surface structure called the T-cell ...attacking and destroying cells infected by foreign invaders (killer T cells). Gamma-delta T cells migrate from the thymus to epithelial tissues such as skin and...

Natural Killers Could Lead to New Hepatitis Treatments

...ol the labyrinthine blood vessels of the liver for invaders or signs of tissue damage and demonstrate a dogged...immune-system assault on marauding microbes, other invaders or damaged tissue. The findings offer a new way of thinking about this important class of immune ce...

Disabling gene defuses rheumatoid arthritis in mice

...mmune cells such as neutrophils respond rapidly to invaders and normally comprise the body's frontline defenses against bacterial infection. Peng became interested in Foxo3a because of prior studies his research team had conducted on a related gene, Foxj1. Both genes belong to the forkhead family of genes, w...

UNC plant researchers discover proteins interact to form hair-trigger protection against invaders

...surveillance antenna or hair trigger. When disease invaders pull that trigger, infected plants cells quickly commit suicide, often preventing the invader from destroying the entire plant. The new discovery appears to be a universal mechanism for defense by all plants against not only bacteria and viruses, bu...

FDA approves more generic AIDS drugs

...surveillance antenna or hair trigger. When disease invaders pull that trigger, infected plants cells quickly commit suicide, often preventing the invader from destroying the entire plant. The new discovery appears to be a universal mechanism for defense by all plants against not only bacteria and viruses, bu...

Scripps research scientists solve structure of a critical innate immune system protein

...ds, or other molecular components of these foreign invaders through a family of TLR proteins, and then trigger the immune system's multi-stage biochemical attack on the pathogens. Humans have at least 10 different TLRs, each of which recognizes a specific subset of antigens. For instance, TLR4 recognizes lip...

A protein in the eye may prevent immune response and protect eyes from disease

...immune response onset when confronted with foreign invaders such as bacteria. Without this special reaction, the eye's delicate tissue would be destroyed by inflammation and the gastrointestinal tract could not tolerate the ingestion of food. The F4/80 molecule (also known as a glycoprotein) was first discove...

Secrets to antibody's success against West Nile Virus surprise scientists

...fective. Antibodies normally work by binding to invaders to flag them for consumption and destruction by im...uld be death warrants into passes into cells where invaders can reproduce. Fremont cautions that this phenomenon has not been seen in West Nile virus, but no...

How HIV disables the cells' call for help

... cells ?immune system cells that recognize foreign invaders and alert other types of immune cell to come to th... there must be more to the story. T cells identify invaders using receptors, like security antennae, on their outer walls. A virus, especially one with its own ...

Stolen gene allows insect virus to enter cells

...' DNA in order to replicate, and remnants of these invaders can be passed to descendants.) In viruses, an f gene codes for a fusion (F) protein, which enables the virus to penetrate the host cell's membrane and infect it. Scientists had shown that some other viral genes were probably copied from host cells, b...

'License to kill' enables powerful immune attack cells in mice

...identified ways that help immune cells distinguish invaders from self, and could have important implications f... as natural killer cells. The cells rapidly attack invaders and are continually generated in the bone marrow, leading to replacement of the entire population ap...

Dendritic cells offer new therapeutic target for drugs to treat MS and other autoimmune disease

...ute "look here" information about unwanted foreign invaders to soldiering T-cells. "Someday, using a drug to block FLT3 gene signaling could stop dendritic cells from triggering harmful responses against a patient's own body," says Donald Small, M.D., Ph.D., professor at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Cent...

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