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Tag: "inside" at biology news

Nicotine rush hinges on sugar in neurons

...how signals pass from the outside of a cell to the inside is a long-standing one. Some researchers had suggested that when a chemical such as nicotine binds to an ion channel protein on the cell surface, the protein starts a “conformational wave” that propagates a signal through the protein body to the ce...

Cellular message movement captured on video

...e dynamics of how paxillin and other proteins move inside the cell with new fluorescent labels and live-cell video microscopy,” said Chien, director of the Whitaker Institute of Biomedical Engineering at the Jacobs School. The two-color labeling technique of Chien and Hu revealed that red-labeled paxilli...

Simulations unravel outer membrane transport mechanism

...’t know whether what you have labeled is happening inside or outside.” U. of I. researchers simulated the interaction of part of the inner membrane protein TonB (shown in red) and the luminal domain (in green and dark blue) of the outer membrane transporter. The yellow sphere represents the point on the T...

How sneaky HIV escapes cells

...dded a tether to force naturally-clumping proteins inside the cell to the membrane, the proteins met a similar exosomal deportation fate. The major HIV protein ‘Gag’ has both of these properties that cells sense in selecting exosomal cargoes. When the researchers removed the tethers or clumping signals ...

A new plant-bacterial symbiotic mechanism promising for crop applications

...n, thereby allowing the microorganism to penetrate inside the plant by the root hairs. The finding raises the question as to what signalling pathway Bradyrhizodium might use to gain entry to the plant and set off nodulation. The first observation was that the bacteria did not penetrate the roots of i...

Largest synthetic gene ever built offers insights into anti-malarial drug resistance

...ne balance) within the parasite when it is growing inside the red cell. These changes affect how drugs like chloroquine enter the parasite, and how efficiently they bind to pre-crystalline heme. If these drugs can't enter blood cells as efficiently, and if the efficiency of heme binding is pushed in the wro...

Pesticides choke pathway for nature to produce nitrogen for crops

...and block connections to specific receptors (NodD) inside rhizobia bacteria living in root nodules in the soil. Rotation legume crops such as alfalfa and soybeans require such interaction to naturally replace nitrogen levels that, in turn, benefit primary market crops like corn grown after legume rotations....

Studies to find better ways to preserve human eggs, ovarian tissue under way

...not the cells inside. Liquid freezes and the water inside the cells moves out gradually so they dehydrate,” ...on can be destructive. “Ice crystals break up your inside organelles. That is what hurts eggs, which are very delicate,” he says. “When you trigger ovulat...

Brain holds clues to bipolar disorder

...uronal plasticity cascades – the complex machinery inside of nerve cells that regulates numerous processes inside the body. Using animal and cellular models, Dr. Manji and colleagues at NIMH showed that disruptions...

Undergraduate research shows leaderless honeybee organizing

...d leave the hive. Later, they were able to observe inside the swarm itself and see workers give the queen a ...ually see how workers were interacting with queens inside a swarm cluster, where they are hanging in a tree. That was really interesting, because nobody had e...

CT scan reveals ancient long-necked gliding reptile

.... "In some cases, with larger bones, we can see inside the bones," says Ryan. "However, we could not determine the exact morphology of all the appendages because smaller bones were difficult to resolve due to the size of the specimen." The specimens were scanned at a resolution of about one tenth of ...

Small, self-controlled planes combine plant pathology and engineering

...atening agriculture in the United States from both inside and outside the borders of the country,” Schmale said. “An increased understanding of the dynamics of plant pathogens in the atmosphere is essential for establishing effective quarantine measures, preventing the spread of plant disease, and mitigatin...

Penn researchers link cell's protein recycling systems

...cess in which proteins are surrounded by membranes inside the cell for bulk digestion. “The dogma has been that the autophagy-lysosomal and the proteasomal systems are trains that run on different tracks, with similar purposes, but no point of intersection,” explains senior author J. Paul Taylor, MD, PhD...

Bacteria ferry nanoparticles into cells for early diagnosis, treatment

...eres that are drawn into the cell's interior. Once inside the cell, the bacteria dissolve the vesicle membra...nsors could make it possible to monitor activities inside a single cell for the early detection of cancer and other diseases and to monitor the progress of di...

In nature, proteins sweep up nanoparticles

Here’s a pollution-control tip from nature: Deep inside a flooded mine in Wisconsin, scientists from several institutions including the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have discovered a world in which bacteria emit proteins that sweep up metal nanoparticles...

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine researchers develop 'off-the-shelf' vascular grafts

...scular graft by “bulk seeding,” or spraying, MDSCs inside a biodegradable porous, tubular polyester urethane scaffold using a rotational vacuum seeding device. After culturing their vascular constructs for seven days, the investigators then implanted them in the abdominal aortas of rats eight weeks befo...

Staphylococcus aureus hides out in cells

...h, UK set out to uncover what S. aureus (6850) did inside human lung epithelial cells (A549) using an in vitro model. They found that shortly after S. aureus entered the lung cells, the bacteria’s gene expression profile dramatically changed: gene expression for bacterial metabolic functions and transport s...

UCF nanoparticle offers promise for treating glaucoma

...ase involves abnormally high pressure of the fluid inside the eye, which, if left untreated, can result in d...s, in part, because of a buildup of carbon dioxide inside the eye, and the compound blocks the enzyme that produces carbon dioxide. Seal and a team of coll...

Blood-brain barrier breached by new therapeutic strategy

...in barrier and into nerve cells in the brain. Once inside brain nerve cells, the antiviral siRNA can silence key viral genes to control the infection. Furthermore, repeated administration of the RNA interference therapy did not trigger inflammation or antibodies to the peptide. Currently, doctors use va...

Researchers discover 'acquired' DNA key to certain bacterial infection

...genetic material, the bacterium finds a way to get inside the cells and it takes control, not the phagocyte.” Phagocytes are cells that engulf and digest pathogens and cellular debris, and in humans serve as the body’s initial immune response. The researchers did not find a similar island of acquired...

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