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Tag: "initiate" at biology news

An HIV Protein Plays a Surprising Role in Gene Activation

.... When the authors used the activator Gal4-VP16 to initiate HIV transcription, every one of the 11 TAFs studied appeared. None of them did so in the presence of Tat, suggesting that Tat-mediated HIV transcription doesn't rely on TAFs. Green and colleagues confirmed this hypothesis in experiments showing that ...

Scientists collaborate to assess health of global environment

...ties is what helped convince the United Nations to initiate the program, he added. Case studies In September, the assessment team will release five technical reports totaling nearly 2,500 pages and focusing on the ties between ecosystems and human well-being. A set of 33 case studies, termed sub-global asse...

Studies reveal methods viruses use to sidestep immune system

...ells with the mutated RIG-I protein were unable to initiate immune signals, abolishing the host cells' defenses to HCV. When HCV infects a cell, the RIG-I protein physically binds the virus genetic material. RIG-I then changes its shape, which sends a cascade of signals to other proteins to activate a transc...

DNA Recombination and Repair—A New Twist to RecA Function

...on either side of the shared sequence. It can also initiate the repair of DNA lesions during replication—the process by which a DNA molecule is copied to make two. RecA is also an ATPase, an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing (breaking down) ATP, when bound to DNA. RecA uses ATP to carry out strand exchange over ...

Scientists solve structure of key protein in innate immune response

..., it presents the molecule to other proteins which initiate a strong pro-inflammatory response that stimulates host defenses. "Macrophages and monocytes can recognize distinct structural patterns in various molecules from pathogenic microorganisms," explains Dr. Jie-Oh Lee of the Korea Advanced Institute of ...

How an AIDS-Related Cancer Unleashes Inflammation

...si's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus that causes KS initiate cytokine production? "While there are many genes in the viral genome that are capable of inducing cytokine production, the mechanism underlying this induction has remained unknown," said Ganem. In their studies, McCormick and Ganem concentrated on ...

Sequencing of marine bacterium will help study of cell communication

...l molecules increase with cell density, until they initiate various reactions, such as light production ?or, in a pathogen, the release of toxin once a certain level of bacteria build up. Stevens studies the regulation system of the cell-to-cell communication. "Our quorum sensing research group at Virginia T...

Hirsute Or Hairless? Two Proteins May Spell The Difference

...nchyme—direct morphogenesis. The mesenchymal cells initiate the cell-to-cell “crosstalk?that controls bud formation by first directing a small cluster of epithelial cells to form a placode, the pouch that forms hair plugs. The placode in turn directs underlying mesenchymal cells to form the base of the hair f...

Controlling protein diversity

...ors control the process by which a single gene can initiate production of several proteins in a process called alternative splicing, said Baylor College of Medicine researchers in a report that appears in today's issue of the journal Molecular Cell. "A major question in biology today is how human cells with 3...

To control germs, scientists deploy tiny agents provocateurs

...a certain density threshold, the colonies unite to initiate group behaviors, such as biofilm formation. Attempting to manipulate quorum sensing in both plant and animal bacteria, Blackwell and her team are designing new compounds that mimic acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), a natural molecule that is used...

New understanding of DNA repair may pave way to cancer treatments

...his regulation is central to the cell's ability to initiate DNA repair processes following ionizing irradiation or other exposures that cause breaks in DNA. A likely way in which ATF2 works is to halt the cell's cycle to allow repair of damaged DNA before such damage becomes permanent." Ronai and his colleag...

Basis for DNA ejection from single phage particles

...ufficient to permit phage DNA ejection, or only to initiate that process. The researchers used fluorescently labeled phage DNA to investigate in real time (and with a resolution time of 750 milliseconds) the dynamics of DNA ejection from single phages. The ejected DNA was measured at different stages of the ...

UCLA study assesses cost-effectiveness of Hepatitis B drugs

...that a degree of uncertainly exists on how to best initiate hepatitis B treatment due to a constant influx of newer, more expensive drugs that all have varying risks and benefits. "We need to develop a more calculated approach and establish guidelines for the most cost-effective treatment," said Dr. Fasiha K...

Second messenger NAADP shows fast, dose-related impact on satiety cycle

...her natural facilitators or synthetic products ?to initiate various cellular cascades for the desired physiological effect. To date, despite concerted efforts at all levels of research, this approach has failed to develop a truly successful obesity drug to address this major global health problem. Enter a re...

DNA constraints control structure of attached macromolecules

...gether, then the researchers add magnesium ions to initiate folding of the RNA. "Folding of the RNA structure competes with formation of the DNA constraint until a chemical balance is reached," Silverman said. "In some cases, the DNA is like a barnacle, just stuck onto the RNA without perturbing its structur...

UN successfully tests 'green' pesticide against locusts

...gether, then the researchers add magnesium ions to initiate folding of the RNA. "Folding of the RNA structure competes with formation of the DNA constraint until a chemical balance is reached," Silverman said. "In some cases, the DNA is like a barnacle, just stuck onto the RNA without perturbing its structur...

Health costs soar as 60 million Americans classed as obese

...gether, then the researchers add magnesium ions to initiate folding of the RNA. "Folding of the RNA structure competes with formation of the DNA constraint until a chemical balance is reached," Silverman said. "In some cases, the DNA is like a barnacle, just stuck onto the RNA without perturbing its structur...

Understanding how bacteria communicate may help scientists prevent disease

...cteria. He is modeling the sequence of events that initiate activity, such as virulence, by a bacteria colony ... sensing, that are integrated by the small RNAs to initiate changes in behavior. An example might be the amount of nutrients in the environment. Another questio...

Cancer related gene p53 not regulated as indicated by previous tissue culture research

...on of p53, so that p53 protein levels can rise and initiate protective measures. When higher than normal levels of p53 tumor suppressor exist, there is enough p53 to bind to many regulatory sites in the cell's genome to activate the production of other proteins that will halt cell division if the DNA damage c...

Enzyme's newly discovered role may make it target for arthritis treatment

...bind to the mouse's own cartilage and collagen and initiate an inflammation," Pham explains. "This leads to a condition similar to rheumatoid arthritis in the mice." Three years ago, Pham's lab published results showing that mice deficient in cathepsin G and other closely related proteases failed to develop ...

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