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Tag: "inactivate" at biology news

Scientists identify genetic pathways essential to RNA interference

...d that gene off using RNAi. They then used RNAi to inactivate every one of the worms' 19,000 genes by feeding the worms bacteria that produce double-stranded RNA for each gene. Inactivation of about 90 genes caused the worms to glow, indicating that those genes were essential to the RNAi process that had been s...

Researchers trace evolution to relatively simple genetic changes

...tions, mutations, many types of lesions that would inactivate the protein," Kingsley said. But in contrast, "in the fish we don't see any mutations that would clearly destroy the protein." There are some very minor changes in many populations, but these changes do not affect key parts of the molecule. In addit...

Octopuses occasionally stroll around on two arms, UC Berkeley biologists report

...tions, mutations, many types of lesions that would inactivate the protein," Kingsley said. But in contrast, "in the fish we don't see any mutations that would clearly destroy the protein." There are some very minor changes in many populations, but these changes do not affect key parts of the molecule. In addit...

Scientists identify genetic pathways essential to RNA interference

...d that gene off using RNAi. They then used RNAi to inactivate every one of the worms' 19,000 genes by feeding the worms bacteria that produce double-stranded RNA for each gene. Inactivation of about 90 genes caused the worms to glow, indicating that those genes were essential to the RNAi process that had been s...

Plant Sacrifices Cells to Fight Invaders

...develop the gene-silencing technique to adequately inactivate the plant genes. The new technique was a success for the field of plant research and is currently being used by several research groups. NSF's Jane Silverthorne said, "This is a great example of how NSF-supported tools are enabling important basic re...

Of mice and men's (and women's) contraceptives

...ic to the germ cells," says Hecht. "Clearly, if we inactivate the function of a protein with a small inhibitory molecule, it can't be a protein also active in such somatic tissues as brain, heart, liver, and so forth, only in the reproductive cells we want to target." Investigating germ cell molecules for contr...

Research Reveals Functions Of Harmful Shellfish Pathogens

...so develops high-pressure processing techniques to inactivate enteric viruses in contaminated shellfish. This research may provide better diagnostic capabilities and treatment strategies to further reduce shellfish-related illnesses. ARS is the U.S. Department of Agriculture's chief scientific research agency...

Variation in HIV's ability to disable host defenses contributes to rapid evolution

...rch Center. Some variations in Vif only partially inactivate the defensive proteins that cause HIV to mutate, and might even promote further variation in the virus within patients. "This work elucidates new pathways which shape the evolution of the virus," says Viviana Simon, lead author of the study. ### Ci...

Multi-species genome comparison sheds new light on evolutionary processes, cancer mutations

...pots may activate genes that trigger cancer and/or inactivate genes that normally suppress cancer. However, they emphasize that far more work remains to be done to clarify the relationship between cancer and the breakage hotspots. One thing researchers have determined is that the regions immediately flanking th...

Sleeping beauty plays a significant role in identifying cancer genes

...emselves into or between genes and can activate or inactivate a gene's normal function. Related transposons are natural to the genetic makeup of humans, animals and fish, but, through millions of years of evolution, most transposons became inactive dead-ends. In 1997, in another study, University of Minnesota r...

Change in gene may be underlying molecular defect in some colorectal cancers

...omoter region has methyl groups added to it, which inactivate the gene. Jean-Pierre J. Issa, M.D., of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, and colleagues hypothesized that MGMT promoter methylation could be one of the characteristics of the field defect in colorectal cancer, so they ...

Use of high hydrostatic pressure to inactivate Hepatitis A virus in oysters studied

...00 to study whether high hydrostatic pressure will inactivate Hepatitis A virus in both shucked and unshucked oy...h officials. HPP makes it possible to eradicate or inactivate pathogens while still delivering a 'raw' product to the consumer. The study will benefit processors...

New processing method reduces peanut allergenicity

... cookies, snacks and even soups there is a need to inactivate peanut allergens to protect consumers from a potentially life-threatening allergic reaction," says Jianmei Yu, a researcher on the study. In the United States, the most significant rise in food allergies has been attributed to peanuts and other nuts...

New technique could alter field of mouse genetics

...f Medicine. "We have found a way to systematically inactivate genes in the mouse genome so we understand the functions of these genes." With a large inventory of genome sequences in hand, over the last few years many scientists have shifted their attention to determining the function of all of those genes. The...

New study expands understanding of the role of RNA editing in gene control

...ed microRNAs, or miRNAs, that appear to target and inactivate particular messenger RNAs. This targeted gene silencing is now seen as one of the body's primary strategies for regulating its genome. Now, in a new study published online in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, a Wistar-led team of scientists...

Brainstem blocks pain to protect key behaviors

...tions.) As a final test the authors used drugs to inactivate the VMM. This completely eliminated the delayed response to pain. "This is the best evidence so far on the biological significance of OFF cell activity," said UCSF's Fields, who was not connected with the study. "It is a major step in understanding...

Twin molecular scissors link creation of microRNAs with gene-silencing

...ed only a few years ago, these molecules appear to inactivate messenger RNA, itself responsible for translating genes into proteins. Scientists have been eager to know more about miRNAs, clearly important players on the genetic field despite having gone unnoticed for so long. How are they produced? And how do t...

Researchers use dirt to stay one step ahead of antibiotic resistance

... therapies. "Furthermore, studying enzymes that inactivate antibiotics can serve as a foundation for the development of new combination therapies for resistant bacterial strains. Studying antibiotic resistance from an evolutionary perspective is one way that researchers are attempting to stay one step ahead...

Evolution follows few of the possible paths to antibiotic resistance

...beta-lactamase, which in altered form can serve to inactivate antibiotics including penicillin and cefotaxime. Analyzing how well each variant protected host Escherichia coli cells against treatment with various concentrations of antibiotic, the scientists found that only a very small fraction of these pathways...

How ancient whales lost their legs, got sleek and conquered the oceans

...tionary process, when a drastic change occurred to inactivate a gene essential for limb development. This gene - called Sonic hedgehog - functions during the first quarter of gestation in the embryonic period of the animals' development, before the fetal period. In all limbed vertebrates, Sonic hedgehog is req...

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