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Tag: "hypothesis" at biology news

Molecular biology fills gaps in knowledge of bat evolution

...es of all bat families. Their results support the hypothesis that the group of large fruit-eating bats from the tropics, that fly mostly during the day - known to biologists as megabats - emerged from four major lineages of smaller and more widely dispersed, mostly insect-eating, night-flying bats, known as mi...

Deficient DNA Repair Capacity Associated With Increased Risk Of Breast Cancer

...those with the highest. "[T]hese data support the hypothesis that deficient DNA repair capacity is associated with susceptibility to breast cancer and may be a valuable in vitro biomarker to identify high-risk subjects, especially in familial breast cancer families," the authors write. "It is unclear at this t...

Neuronal 'traffic jam' marks early Alzheimer's disease

...transport deficit and plaque deposition. "So, our hypothesis is that in familial Alzheimer's disease -- or in disorders such as Down syndrome where beta-APP is overexpressed -- those defects cause early failure in cellular transport," he said. "And those failures then stimulate further production of A-beta pep...

Recent breakthroughs in common adult leukemia highlighted in New England Journal of Medicine

... to the biology, the authors then offer a unifying hypothesis for the development, growth and evolution of the disease, and complete the review with a discussion of the clinical implications for practicing physicians. ...

HIV Patients May Be at Risk of Heart Problems When Taking Protease Inhibitor Drugs

...d with protease inhibitors. They investigated the hypothesis that the widely-used protease inhibitors may, in fact, be linked to the development of heart rhythm problems through the mechanism of blocking a channel. Ultimately researchers from the University of Wisconsin led by Craig January, M.D., Ph.D., disco...

Research on Worms Yields Clues on Aging

...ety of disorders in humans. "We didn'tstart with a hypothesis about what causes aging," says senior authorKerry Kornfeld, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of molecular biologyand pharmacology. "We wanted to look in an unbiased way at availablecompounds to see if any of them happened to have anti-aging activity....

Clam embryo study shows pollutant mixture adversely affects nerve cell development

...f an EPA-funded clam embryostudy that supports her hypothesis that, when combined, the pollutantsbromoform, chloroform, and tetrachloroethylene--a chemical cocktailknown as BCE--can act synergistically to alter a key regulator in nervecell development. While scientists have previously studied the effectsof thes...

Study identifies predictors of HIV drug resistance in patients beginning triple therapy

...f an EPA-funded clam embryostudy that supports her hypothesis that, when combined, the pollutantsbromoform, chloroform, and tetrachloroethylene--a chemical cocktailknown as BCE--can act synergistically to alter a key regulator in nervecell development. While scientists have previously studied the effectsof thes...

An HIV Protein Plays a Surprising Role in Gene Activation

... rely on TAFs. Green and colleagues confirmed this hypothesis in experiments showing that Tat-driven transcription proceeded as usual in cells lacking TAFs. And they demonstrated that it is Tat—along with its cofactor P-TEFb, which is normally bound to RNA through Tat—that recruits the TAF-deficient TBP. Altog...

Critical role in programmed cell death identified

...ochondria are part of it. It unifies two different hypothesis and makes worms a great model to analyze how cell death is induced, " Conradt said. Mitochondria are dynamic structures, constantly changing shape, budding and fusing. In cells instructed to die, the mitochondria tend to become smaller or fragment, ...

Why do insects stop 'breathing'? To avoid damage from too much oxygen, say researchers

... oxygen at these safe values," Bradley said. "This hypothesis explains the respiratory pattern of insects in different environments in ways that previous models can't." Two previous models for explaining why insects punctuate their breathing with periods of closure are (1) such discontinuous breathing reduces ...

New insight into people who 'see' colors in letters and numbers

...esearchers said their findings lend support to the hypothesis that the condition is due to cross-activation between adjacent brain areas involved in perceiving shapes and colors. Some synesthetes report seeing colors when listening to music, or feeling tactile shapes while tasting food. This cross-activation mi...

The very unexpected life and death of a leukemic cell

...at perhaps the leukemia cells were not immortal, a hypothesis tested by Nicholas Chiorazzi and colleagues in a paper appearing online on February 10 in advance of publication in the March 1 print edition of the Journal of Clinical Investigation. This new study shows that leukemia cells are born at a fast rate a...

New RNA polymerase discovered in plants

...tried to turn into petals, for instance. Our first hypothesis was that the fourth polymerase was involved with what are known as micro RNAs, which are known to regulate flower development, but that proved wrong." In a series of genetic and biochemical tests , Pikaard and his collaborators discovered that Pol I...

Bird Brains Show How Trial and Error May Contribute to Learning

...it is important in learning. Our data supports the hypothesis that one of the things it could be doing is introducing variability." Other researchers in the Brainard and Doupe labs are following up to see if the male mating song can be permanently altered by LMAN stimulation and whether females prefer the stab...

Family trees of ancient bacteria reveal evolutionary moves

...d range of researchers. Blank is able to draw her hypothesis from family trees she is drawing of Cyanobacteria....d by serious paleobiologists to see how sound this hypothesis is," Blank said. "This time frame is one of the biggest puzzles for biologists and geologists alike....

Scientists find fossil proof of Egypt's ancient climate

...ver the past 400,000 years. We're also testing the hypothesis that humid events were more frequent than previously thought, which would have allowed for greater mobility throughout the region." The researchers noted that the silt thickness at the lake exceeds five yards, an indication that the humid phase last...

Breast-Cancer Risk Linked to Exposure to Traffic Emissions at Menarche, First Birth

...opment," said Nie. "Our study findings support the hypothesis that exposures in early life contribute to breast-cancer risk." The study was based on data from the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) study. All participants were women between the ages of 35 and 79 who lived in Erie or Niagara cou...

How the environment could be damaging men's reproductive health

...y and the incidence of testicular cancer. "If the hypothesis is correct that TDS is caused by environmental conditions, possibly interacting with genetic factors, the question arises as to whether adverse changes in the environmental factors affecting male reproductive health have taken place in Lithuania in t...

Wisconsin researchers identify sleep gene

...ls, allowing potassium to flow through them. "Our hypothesis is that if you don't have potassium channels, you won't get slow waves," Cirelli says. "The cell membrane will remain activated, preventing long periods of deep, non-REM sleep." The researchers say that the fly research translates to humans even mor...

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