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Tag: "gravity" at biology news

Simulations unravel outer membrane transport mechanism

...cond simulation exerted a force near the center of gravity of the luminal domain, pulling it out of the barrel in one piece. This required an enormous input of energy, however. “The force that we applied was about 4,000 picoNewtons,” Tajkhorshid said. “This is an order of magnitude higher than that requir...

Lessons from the orangutans: Upright walking may have begun in the trees

...es with their toes and distributed their center of gravity more effectively, while keeping one or both of their long arms free to reach for fruits and other supports. Orangutans also keep their legs straight while standing on bending branches, the authors report. The exact benefit of the straight legs is...

Researchers show that veins stiffen as we age

... valves to prevent any backflow of blood caused by gravity as blood is returned to the heart from the lower extremities. The walls of the veins are made of collagen and elastin, two proteins that give the tube-like blood vessels flexibility and help them to maintain your blood pressure. To determine if the...

Paramecia adapt their swimming to changing gravitational force

... of Brown University have worked out a way to turn gravity on its head and see how the creatures respond. Th...and Guevorkian were able to increase the effect of gravity by about 50 percent. To increase the effect even further, they added a compound called Gadolinium-di...

New biochip helps study living cells, may speed drug development

...r the Gulf of Mexico, going from two times Earth's gravity to zero gravity again and again," he said. "There is absolutely no way this experiment could have been done without ...

MIT engineers probe spiders' polymer art

...e their hind legs as well as their body weight and gravity to elongate the gel into a fine thread. Kojic, who first practiced on silkworms, learned how to extract a microscopic amount of the gel-like solution from the spider's silk-producing major ampullate gland. The researchers used devices called mic...

Tiny airborne particles are a major cause of climate change

...droplets. When the droplets reach a critical size, gravity takes over, causing them to fall from the cloud in the form of rain. One of the controversies surrounding the extent of aerosol impact on climate change is the duality of their influence. On the one hand, Koren and his colleagues previously found e...

U of M study examines kidney stone prevention in astronauts

... space to attempt to combat bone loss, the lack of gravity makes it difficult to achieve enough resistance to...d their head lower than their feet to simulate low gravity for 30 days. One twin per pair was randomly selected to exercise (while still reclining) in a chamb...

Scientist-astronaut sends T-cells into space

...lls in the centrifuge ?basically, under artificial gravity ?will be activated normally, and the T-cells in microgravity will not be activated," she predicts. "We will compare them side by side and discover, for the first time, exactly which genes did not turn on in microgravity." Hughes-Fulford placed an e...

AIDS drug from sunflowers

...ch genes plants switch on and off under particular gravity conditions,' he explains. 'However, with the methods we use we can also, for example, find out which genes the sunflowers activate when they produce DCQA in reaction to a fungus infection.' This knowledge would make mass production of DCQA a distinc...

Why Christmas trees are not extinct

...ig to plastic tubing, used an elevated reservoir's gravity to force water into one end of each twig, and then used an electronic balance to weigh water dripping out the other end. Then, based on the number of conduits and valves in twigs and their known dimensions, the biologists calculated the resistance to...

Plant gene related to cancer treatment may foster new oncology drugs

...shape, height and bending in response to light and gravity are largely determined by the direction and amount of auxin moving through their tissues. Murphy and his collaborators on the Plant Journal study found that PGP1 and PGP19 move the hormone out of cells. In the November Plant Cell report, Murphy's r...

Wright bros. upstaged! Dinos invented biplanes

...The central theme of the trees-down theory is that gravity was the source of energy: a small climbing dinosaur first parachuted down, then began to stay aloft longer by gliding, and finally acquired powered flight. As those abilities developed, feathers became larger and more specialized, providing greater ...

Scientists devise way to measure RNA synthesis on the fly in a live cell

...ial objects visible to them did not contain enough gravity to explain the motion of galaxies. "They proposed the hypothesis that the motion of galaxies is affected by the presence of invisible matter called 'dark matter,'" Cluzel said. In recent years, astronomers have rushed to design experiments that migh...

Can't serve an ace? Could be muscle fatigue

...he force of gravity," Professor Proske said. "Take gravity away, as happens to astronauts, and they have real trouble carrying out skilled movements. "In our experiments we found that when the muscles in one arm were fatigued, the effort required to maintain a set arm position was much greater. When asked t...

Physiological effects of reduced gravity on bacteria

...ibes differences in bacterial responses to reduced gravity and how for some species, bacteria from the Intern...sponding type strains of the same species. Reduced gravity was modeled using clinorotation. The findings suggest that conditions on the ISS might have favoured...

NASA links nanobacteria to kidney stones and other diseases

...d to multiply five times faster compared to normal gravity on Earth, supporting earlier discoveries that microbes have radically different behavior in weightless environments. NB is also shown to possibly be an infectious risk for crew members living in close quarters. "The concept that nanobacteria are liv...

Plants, animals share molecular growth mechanisms

...in a cell are positioned and how plants respond to gravity and light. Szymanski's team used a deformed version of a common research plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, and specifically looked at small, hairlike structures that exist on most cells. They found that the shape and size of these hairs, or trichomes, re...

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