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Caribbean frogs started with a single, ancient voyage on a raft from South America

... eastern-Caribbean islands, regardless of how they got there. "Discovering a single origin for all of these species from throughout the Caribbean islands was completely unexpected," Hedges said. To make their discovery, the researchers sequenced the DNA of nearly 300 species of Caribbean, Central Amer...

Undergraduate research shows leaderless honeybee organizing

...pressive achievement for a student researcher – he got a publication as an undergraduate,” Schneider note...ecause they are so different. Evolutionarily, they got to the same point as humans – living in these highly organized societies that function with remarkab...

Penn researchers link cell's protein recycling systems

...the lysosome system down, neurodegeneration always got worse,” says Taylor. “Then when we activated the autophagy system by feeding the flies a drug called rapamycin, neurodegeneration was prevented.” The accumulated misfolded proteins were cleared out by the lysosome system. “Then we knew that this syst...

Blood-brain barrier breached by new therapeutic strategy

...nfection; in contrast, 80 percent of the mice that got the antiviral siRNA linked to the rabies peptide survived. These experiments demonstrate how the rabies peptide can be used to deliver antiviral siRNA across the blood-brain barrier and into nerve cells in the brain. Once inside brain nerve cells, th...

The mouflons of the Kerguelen archipelago

...rs appealed to the hunters who wintered there. “We got the missing DNA samples from hunting trophies and managed to go all the way back to the son of the founders,” said Denis Réale with a smile. “We were even able to obtain genetic material from the population of origin from the Vincennes Zoo. “We took ...

New knowledge improves rice quality

.... "It’s very clear from the great response we got to the workshop that rice quality is becoming a very hot topic in rice research almost everywhere," the convener and head of IRRI’s Grain Quality, Nutrition, and Postharvest Center, Melissa Fitzgerald, said. "Many of the issues we discussed may not h...

Newborn neurons like to hang with the 'in' crowd

...ometer scale and watched how the young and the old got acquainted. He observed that between three and four weeks after injection of the virus newborn neurons sent out dendritic filopodia—tiny feelers that probe the environment. "When we analyzed them in three dimensions, the tip of the filopodia was ...

Molecule that destroys bone also protects it, new research shows

...om arthritic bone loss," Gaffen said. "In fact, we got the opposite result. The mice without IL-17 were much more susceptible to bone loss caused by periodontal disease, compared to normal mice. "What’s the difference between an autoimmune disease like RA and periodontal disease" Periodontal ...

LIAI scientists make important finding on cytomegalovirus transmission

...ould reduce the virus," he said. The scientists got a stronger result by blocking the IL-10 receptor. "It significantly reduced the virus load in all the animals and in 50 percent of them it completely eliminated it," Croft said. The OX40 treatment also greatly reduced the virus load, but did not e...

Sleepless for science: Flies show link between sleep, immune system in Stanford study

...aid Schneider. "Also it was too regular, the flies got used to it so they could nap." Another option was to keep the flies in continuous light. But Schneider and Shirasu-Hiza decided that an even better way would be to turn to established fly strains isolated decades ago that possess disruptions in th...

Cornell lab confirms deadly fish virus spreading to new species

... ballast water. "Basically, we don’t know how it got here, but it is here and it’s spreading," said Bowser. "It would be wonderful if we did know. However, I don’t think we ever will." The Great Lakes VHSV is not related to the European or Japanese genotypes and poses no health threat to humans, said...

Paper challenges 1491 Amazonian population theories

... the 1990s drifted up to 10 million. "We've now got a polarized community," he says. At one end, he says, is Anna Roosevelt of the Field Museum in Chicago (she argues for large populations dispersed throughout Amazonia); at the other is Betty Meggers at Smithsonian (she argues these were very primi...

A genetic 'gang of 4' drives spread of breast cancer

...hese cells reached the lung capillaries, they just got stuck there," said Massagué. "We concluded that metastatic cells use these same genes to loosen up cells in capillaries, so that the cells can penetrate the lung tissue to grow there. "These findings provide a beautiful explanation for how the gene...

Chlamydia vaccine a step closer to reality

...eins as part of animal trials...and we think we've got the answer. It is possible that within three to five years we'll be finished the animal trials and be looking at clinical trials in humans." Professor Timms said Sanofi-Pasteur's funding would allow QUT to evaluate the effectiveness of Chlamydia p...

A new study of living cells could revolutionize the way we test drugs

...he experiments. It worked. As soon as the yeast got a taste of the vodka, the probe registered an electrical signal. A drunken hiccup perhaps? "It was probably the last gasp of the dying cell," says Professor Geim. The researchers had added so much ethanol that it poisoned the cell. Although not th...

Protein fragments sequenced in 68 million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex

...es to definitively say that, but what sequences we got support that idea." In another study appearing in the same issue of Science, Mary Schweitzer, of North Carolina State University, and colleagues found that extracts of T. rex bone reacted with antibodies to chicken collagen, further suggesting the...

Turning green gunk to gold, anti-cancer gold

...omise as an anti-cancer drug that organic chemists got busy trying to find ways to make a synthetic form of the compound in large enough quantities for clinical trials. Developing an efficient synthetic route to natural product compounds and their analogs is often an essential step in drug developmen...

Scientists find new genes for Crohn's disease

...hn's disease susceptibility genes, the researchers got strong signals for genetic risk factors located in areas of the genome where there are no known genes. "Further work will be necessary to identify the causal genes in these regions," the authors said. ...

New cell type identified in cancer development

...the immune system affected whether or not the mice got cancer. The scientists found that the pCSCs, like normal stem cells, had the ability to create various types of benign cells in mice with healthy or recovering immune systems. These daughter cells, however, were likely to die, especially when they en...

Using brain scans, researchers find evidence for a two-stage model of human perceptual learning

..."Over the course of the training, the participants got better at finer and finer category discriminations," Riesenhuber said. "This represents a crucial step in category learning where small differences in shape can have a big impact on category labels ?as in the tennis ball and apple example ?and where ...

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