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Tag: "genomes" at biology news

W.M. Keck Foundation funds study of friendly microbes

...oaches for isolating, sequencing and analyzing the genomes of "friendly" bacteria that inhabit the intestine ...lyze the massive amounts of information encoded in genomes and experimentally test predictions about gene functions that come from our computer-assisted analys...

Genome of deadly amoeba shows surprising complexity, evidence of lateral gene transfer

...tructural, functional, and comparative analysis of genomes and gene products in viruses, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. ...

Learning to fight an adversary that won't stay down

...y keep coming." However, the mapping of bacterial genomes has not yet helped yield solutions to the problem, says Dr. Davies. He adds that our understanding of the activity of microbes must extend beyond the newspaper headlines reporting outbreaks of these "superbugs," so that we can put the role of these ...

Solution to Pollution: New Bacteria Eats Toxic Waste

...re present in the mycobacterium. “Putting together genomes tells us a lot about the history of the world and may even help us with its future,?said Joanne Hughes, a Utah State Biology professor. The Department of Energy will sequence the genetic material of the microbes, and the researchers will then partic...

Scientists decipher genome of fungus that can cause life-threatening infections

...determinants of its pathogenicity by comparing the genomes of twoclosely related strains of significantly dif...P64) gene.Researchers compared two closely related genomes of C. neoformans thatdiffer markedly in their virulence properties. The results indicatethat the dif...

Ants Genetic Engineering Leads To Species Interdependency

...ective breeding and genetic engineering, combining genomes is aneasy way to produce novel characteristics that may be highlyadvantageous for growth, environmental tolerance, or diseaseresistance.Regardless of the specific advantages, however, it is clear that theseants have committed themselves to the hybrid...

Scientists reveal molecular secrets of the malaria parasite

...entists did a comparativeanalysis of the two draft genomes with those of the first rodentmalaria parasite to ...ium genome hasevolved. By comparing four sequenced genomes (the human malaria P.falciparum and the rodent malarias P. yoelii, P. chabaudi and P.berghei), the s...

Scientists document complex genomic events leading to the birth of new genes

...responding gene is present in all sequenced animal genomes but not in other eukaryotes, such as plants or fungi. The new gene family characterized by Dr. Bork and his colleagues was largely derived from RanPB2, but it had also acquired a domain from the neighboring GCC2 gene, whose protein product contains ...

PANTHER Protein Classification System Database 5.0

.... “The task of performing functional annotation of genomes ischallenging. Too often we rely simply on transitive annotation based ona BLAST match. The PANTHER system offers a much more sophisticatedsystem for predicting gene function from sequence,?said MichaelAshburner, Ph.D., Professor of Genetics at Cambr...

Examination of internal 'wiring' of yeast, worm, and fly reveals conserved circuits

... the precise subunit sequence of every gene in the genomes of everything from malaria pathogens and mosquitoes to mouse and human. Databases of genomic information have been combined with databases that list the precise subunit sequence of proteins as well. Cross-species DNA and protein comparisons have beco...

Multiple Campylobacter Genomes Sequenced

... sequence was published. Now, nearly 200 bacterial genomes have been completed, and a new one hits the scient...there are major structural differences between the genomes caused by the insertion of new stretches of DNA. Some of these pieces of DNA may carry genes that im...

Fleshing out the genome

...s in any organism's genome but also to compare the genomes of different organisms and their evolutionary relationship. The new tools and approaches offer the most-comprehensive-to-date "functional annotation," a way of assigning the mystery sequences biological function and ranking them based on their simil...

Institute for Systems Biology Symposium Addresses Need for Better Computational Tools

...f proteins of unknown function in over 60 complete genomes via de novo structure prediction. Other presenters included keynote speaker Dr. Nathan Myhrvold, Founder of Intellectual Ventures, LLC and former chief technologist at Microsoft Corporation who founded Microsoft Research, and world leaders in the are...

Study: 'homemade' gene expression technology unreliable

...arly important as scientists delve deeper into the genomes of humans and other animal species in their quest to find cures for a variety of diseases. "Human genome mapping has made the production of these microarrays possible," Spencer said. "Our interest is in how environmental factors ?drugs, pollutants, ...

Gene keeps neural cells on correct developmental path

Embryonic stem cells with identical genomes grow into distinctive tissues, such as heart, bone, and brain. At one time, scientists believed the differences among cell types arose from various sets of genes switched on inside developing cells. Then, studies showed that adult neurons uniquely la...

Retrovirus struck ancestors of chimpanzees and gorillas millions of years ago, but did not affect ancestral humans

...affect. They found many copies of the virus in the genomes of both species, but only a tiny fraction of those copies landed in or near a gene, where it would have the greatest impact. Other studies have shown that most retroviruses typically land near or within genes. This difference may mean the animals tha...

To Stop Evolution: New Way Of Fighting Antibiotic Resistance Demonstrated By Scripps Scientists

... inside our cells has the ability to replicate our genomes extremely well, and the "polymerase" enzymes that ...o replication machinery is perfect, and with large genomes of billions of bases of DNA to be copied many billions of times over the lifetime of an organism, a ...

Where bacteria get their genes

...es does not make sense for bacteria, because their genomes represent a mix of genetic material from their parental cells and from other species of bacteria. Ochman and his colleagues' work shows that bacterial lineages can still be traced by considering only the "traditional" forms of genetic inheritance. T...

NHGRI targets 12 more organisms for genome sequencing

...ents of the human genome is to compare it with the genomes of other organisms." Two of the sequencing projec... nucleotide polymorphisms, known as "SNPs," in the genomes of eight different strains of laboratory rats. SNPs can be used as markers to zero in on genetic var...

Chimp genome reveals a retroviral invasion

...an DNA codes for proteins. Much of the rest of our genomes -- often referred to as junk DNA -- consists of re...ERV1) that does not occur in humans. Searching the genomes of a subset of apes and monkeys revealed that the retrovirus had integrated into the germline of Afr...

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