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Tag: "fitness" at biology news

Helium helps patients breathe easier

...ercise, which may improve their exercise capacity, fitness level and as a result, quality of life," Eves said. ...

The penalty of having a sister -- why sibling sex matters for male saiga antelopes

... an amplified negative effect on male reproductive fitness in species where competition amongst males for mates is very high." The saiga antelope provides scientists with an ideal opportunity to investigate the effects of mixed-sex twin litters on size and development, because there are a high proportion ...

Fitness has fallen since the days of Ancient Greece

...ld struggle to find enough people at that level of fitness today to power the ships at those speeds." Triremes were a huge technological advance, allowing Athens to dominate the seas. They had a strong keel, taken forward into a huge spike covered in bronze plates, which meant they could ram and hole enem...

Childhood obesity among Quebec Cree raises concerns

...ool students exhibited very low levels of physical fitness and physical activity. Diet is another obvious possibility to consider. This University of Alberta research is ongoing—and there’s no question that it is timely. The federal government has just announced the release of a new version of the Canada ...

Fruit flies and global warming -- Some like it hot

...nt heat hardening treatments to get estimates of a fitness component in the wild. They used the likelihood to... sites without natural resources as an estimate of fitness in Drosophila. The results showed that heat treated flies were much more often caught at the baits a...

How did bilaterally symmetric flowers evolve from radially symmetric ones?

...xplored how different flower shapes affected plant fitness in natural populations of Erysimum mediohispanicum, a Mediterranean herb. Their findings will be published in the October issue of The American Naturalist. The researchers found that plants bearing bilaterally symmetrical flowers were more visited ...

Does natural selection drive the evolution of cancer?

...benign cells in a tumor to increase their relative fitness over their malignant neighbors. This would allow t...Maley says. "In this case, you try to increase the fitness of chemosensitive cells so that they outcompete any resistant cells that are in the tumor. And then ...

Walking not enough for significant exercise benefits

...exercise program to the test against a traditional fitness program which incorporated cardio-based activities... energy expenditure, we found that the traditional fitness program improved aerobic fitness and reduced systolic blood pressure, more than the 10,000-step life...

Buildup of damaged DNA in cells drives aging

... from our parents. The second is that lifespan and fitness in old age is determined by how much damage we incur over our lifetime. "Our study suggests that both of these hypotheses are correct. Damage, including DNA damage, drives the functional decline we all experience as we age. But how we respond to ...

A human taste for rarity spells disaster for endangered species

...ls of many plant and animal species suffer reduced fitness at low population densities, which increases their extinction risk. The authors' model now shows that humans can trigger an "anthropogenic Allee effect" in rare species through a paradox of value. When rarity acquires value, prices for scarce species...

Protowings may have helped bird ancestors cover rough terrain

... it is not immediately evident what improvement in fitness would result from ancestral, partly evolved wings. Two theories have recently dominated the debate: one postulates that flight evolved in tree-dwelling ancestors that used their forelimbs to help them glide, while the other considers ancestral birds ...

Beauty and the brain

...ttractiveness), prototypicality signals health and fitness ?unusually protuberant eyes might be a clue to disease, for example ?and so is a kind of shorthand for the value of a potential mate. But whereas that explanation makes intuitive sense when it comes to human faces, Winkielman said, it strains cred...

Mobile DNA part of evolution's toolbox

..."And to the extent that [such changes] improve the fitness of an organism," says Haussler, "they eventually will become fixed in a population." "This suggests a lot of exciting evolutionary avenues," says Haussler, "but we don't yet know how prevalent this kind of evolution is." Other labs have found simil...

Report warns about carbon dioxide threats to marine life

...tion is: "What does this mean in terms of organism fitness and the future of marine ecosystems?" ...

The higher the hierarchy, the greater the aggression

...ors. Cant et al. conclude that variation in future fitness due to inheritance rank is the hidden factor accounting for much of the variation in aggression among apparently equivalent individuals. ...

Study reveals how cells destroy faulty proteins in cystic fibrosis

...unds known as chemical chaperones can increase the fitness of misshaped CFTR and get it into proper shape. Thus, "If we can figure out how to get CFTR into the right shape, we can cure the disease," Cyr said. To better understand how to fix CFTR, Cyr's research team at the UNC Cystic Fibrosis Pulmonary R...

U of M study examines kidney stone prevention in astronauts

...eve enough resistance to maintain their pre-flight fitness levels. "This becomes a real health concern, as the time astronauts spend in space and living in the space station is extended," said Manoj Monga, M.D., professor of urologic surgery and lead investigator. The study will be published in the July 200...

Contaminants linked to sturgeon decline in Columbia river

...ed, "and exhibited reduced growth and reproductive fitness when compared to fish sampled in other locations. These data suggest that some contaminants may be accumulating behind dams over time." North America's largest freshwater fish, white sturgeon can grow to 20 feet in length, weigh more than 1,500 poun...

Evolution follows few of the possible paths to antibiotic resistance

...tion are likely to result in continuously improved fitness and therefore be relevant to the process of natural selection. ...

Males with elevated levels of testosterone lead shorter lives but have more success siring offspring

...at testosterone-treated males had a higher overall fitness than control males," write the authors in a study in the May issue of American Naturalist. This led to the question of why don't juncos naturally have higher levels of testosterone? Testosterone-treated males produced more offspring, but they were ...

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