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Tag: "fatty" at biology news

Scientists ID molecular 'switch' in liver that triggers harmful effects of saturated and trans fats

... opportunity to try to understand what makes these fatty acids so deleterious, and what we need to avoid." ...rvard Medical School. Saturated fats are found in fatty cuts of meat, whole-milk dairy products, butter, and palm and coconut oils; they are associated with...

Lack of enzyme turns fat cells into fat burners

..."Wakil and his colleagues studied the oxidation of fatty acid andglucose in cultures of fat cells isolated ...lacked ACC2. When the mice were fed a normal diet, fatty acidoxidation was 80 percent higher in the fat cells of the mice lackingACC2 when compared to normal...

Tiny scaffolding allows stem cells to become working fat cells

...s other vital roles. Fat cells extract lipids, or fatty acids, from the bloodstream. They also become a huge reservoir for glucose as well, and play a role in insulins ability to effectively convert glucose into energy. "If we could learn how to control fat formation in the body, then we could keep peopl...

Self-assembled nano-sized probes allow Penn researchers to see tumors through flesh and skin

... cell membranes are created from a double layer of fatty phospholipid chains, a polymersome is comprised of two layers of synthetic co-polymers. Like a living cell, the polymersome membrane has a hydrophobic core. The study shows that the fluorophores evenly disperse within this core, giving rise to a nano...

Opposing fat metabolism pathways triggered by a single gene

...abolic pathways: mitochondrial lipid oxidation and fatty acid desaturation. Following up on these changes ...rmone receptor nhr-49 controls fat consumption and fatty acid composition in C. elegans. PLoS Biol 3(2): e53. ...

How the environment could be damaging men's reproductive health

...s fishermen, who consume large quantities of local fatty fish." POPs enter the environment in a number of ways. Tarmo Tiido, co-author and PhD student at the Fertility Centre, said: "The sources of contamination for POPs are closely related to human activities such as domestic and industrial discharge, au...

Molecule that usually protects infection-fighting cells may cause plaque deposits inside arteries

... infection-fighting cells might also contribute to fatty buildups that coat arteries and lead to heart dise...nt study, scientists exposed mice lacking AIM to a fatty diet that would normally induce atherosclerosis. After several weeks, researchers found little to n...

McGill researchers shed light on formation of carcinogen in food

... components, such as vitamin C and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may produce furan as an unwanted by-product of cooking, bottling or canning food products. "Furan and its derivatives sometimes form when amino acids or sugars are broken down by the heat of cooking," explains Dr. Yaylayan. "Normally, f...

New component of the 'brakes' on nerve regeneration found

... cablelike axons of injured neurons. Myelin is the fatty sheath that encases neurons and acts as an insulator and aid to the transmission of nerve impulses. Researchers knew that CNS neurons had receptors on their surface that accepted the inhibitory molecules--like a key fitting a lock--and switched-on i...

Owl genomics presents a HEPATOCHIP for diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

... unknown etiology, characterized histologically by fatty acid accumulation, hepatocyte damage and inflammation resembling alcoholic hepatitis. NASH is a critical stage in the process that spans from hepatic steatosis to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. NASH is one of the most common causes of elevated aminot...

Columbia study shows widely used artery clearing device does not help patients during heart attack

...ave shown that a commonly used procedure to remove fatty debris from blocked arteries during a heart attack...distal protection. During angioplasty procedures, fatty deposits in the arteries can be dislodged and clog arteries further downstream. Distal protection de...

Lipids get new comprehensive classification system

... lipids are divided into eight primary categories: fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphing...n extends to the left. In the simplest case of the fatty acid derivatives, the acid group is drawn on the right and the hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain is on t...

Fat's fate depends on its source

...acking fat, the mice developed low blood sugar and fatty liver. Both conditions were reversed when the rese...y of genes critical for the metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and cholesterol. Those genes are normally targeted by PPARa, a key energy management gene act...

Deep thinking: Scientists sequence a cold-loving marine microbe

...such as cell membranes packed with polyunsaturated fatty acids that resist freezing, polyester compounds th... of four to five genes to generate polyunsaturated fatty acids and pack those acids into cell membranes, resulting in membranes that are fluid and functional...

Scripps research scientists identify infertility molecule

... affected prostaglandin levels. Prostaglandin is a fatty acid found in mammals that is essential for normal implantation. Manipulating parts of LPA signaling may thus be a way of changing prostaglandin levels. This is a significant finding because low implantation rates are one of the major issues facing ...

Insulin pulses keep the liver lean

...sts new dietary strategies and treatments to avoid fatty liver, a growing healthcare epidemic, said the res...pulses acutely reduce the activity of fat-building fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the liver by activating a second liver molecule, called CEACAM1. In mice lack...

Study casts doubt on 'Snowball Earth' theory

...ues to identify prehistoric organisms based on the fatty remains of their cell membranes. The team, which included scientists from USC, Caltech, the University of Maryland and a Brazilian mining company, identified "a complex and productive microbial ecosystem," including photosynthesizing organisms that ...

Beyond genes: Lipid helps cell wall protein fold into proper shape

...ine, or PE for short. Phospholipids, unlike their fatty acid and cholesterol cousins, include a phosphate group that spurs them to form a bilayer with water-friendly outer layers sandwiching an impermeable water-unfriendly inner layer that defines the outer surface of cells. Transport of nutrients and was...

Weight control protein may yield antiobesity drugs

... of leptin, insulin, and lipids. They also develop fatty livers and high blood sugar, the group reports. "Our findings reveal SH2-B as an important positive regulator of leptin sensitivity inside cells of the brain region known as the hypothalamus," said senior author of the study, Liangyou Rui. The hypot...

Researchers discover new tumor defense system

Researchers have discovered that tumors release fatty acids that interfere with the cells that are tryin...Consequently, strategies that reduce the amount of fatty acids surrounding the tumors may give a boost to anti-cancer therapeutics. The details of these find...

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