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Tag: "explanation" at biology news

Scientists ID molecular 'switch' in liver that triggers harmful effects of saturated and trans fats

...GC-1beta. Until now, scientists lacked a detailed explanation of how saturated and trans fats caused an increase in blood cholesterol and triglycerides, while diets high in unsaturated and polyunsaturated fats did not. Evidence pointed to the liver, which is responsible for the body's synthesis of triglycerides...

Probing The Promise And Perils Of Nanoparticles

...bout the biological mechanisms involved. The usual explanation for how polycationic polymers and similar nanoparticles get into cells involves a process called polycation-mediated endocytosis. But Hong's experiments suggest that nanoscale hole formation may be at least as important in allowing materials to trave...

Studies reveal methods viruses use to sidestep immune system

...to appear in PNAS, Dr. Gale and his group found an explanation for HCV's tenaciousness. Once HCV infects the cell, it launches a counterattack against RIG-I, producing a protein called a protease to disrupt the cell's immune response that is otherwise turned on through RIG-I by the virus infection. The viral pro...

New Insights Into HIV Immunity Suggest Alternative Approach to Vaccines

...t HIV strains ?are made. This provides a plausible explanation for why broadly protective antibodies have not been made in response to currently tested HIV vaccines," said Barton Haynes, M.D., lead author of the study and director of the Human Vaccine Institute at Duke University Medical Center. The researchers...

Probing the promise and perils of nanoparticles

...bout the biological mechanisms involved. The usual explanation for how polycationic polymers and similar nanoparticles get into cells involves a process called polycation-mediated endocytosis. But Hong's experiments suggest that nanoscale hole formation may be at least as important in allowing materials to trave...

Molecular models advance the fight against malaria

...t current therapy. "This is the first quantitative explanation for malaria's drug resistance," said Dr. Bernard Trumpower, professor of biochemistry at Dartmouth Medical School and head of the study. "In addition to confirming the belief that the resistance was due to these mutations, we have created a practical...

Key mechanism in genetic inheritance during cell division identified

...crotubule interface, and may provide a biochemical explanation for the role of kinetochores in maintaining chromosome segregation during mitosis. "Our studies indicate that the Dam1 rings are formed by longitudinal self-assembly of multiple copies of the Dam1 complex upon the microtubule surface," the authors s...

Researchers make gains in understanding antibiotic resistance

...oblem of antibiotic resistance now have a detailed explanation of how the drugs' main cellular target in bacteria...studies of the two forms of virginiamycin offer an explanation for how the two forms of that antibiotic work synergistically to kill bacteria. Finally, the resear...

Defenseless plants arm themselves with metals

...ome plants to do just the opposite? "The existing explanation is that metal accumulation evolved to protect these plants from pathogens," Salt said. "Yet most other plants don't accumulate metals, and they resist infection just fine. It never really made sense to me. If everyone's already resisting pathogens, w...

Decoding the logic of olfaction

...found in the environment. "One intriguing possible explanation for this discrepancy is that the cortical neurons might be acting as 'coincidence detectors,'" said Buck. "They might respond only when they get input from more than one type of odorant receptor. And this is fascinating because each odorant is recogn...

Genpathway and Baylor College of Medicine Identify New Genes in Breast Cancer

...found in the environment. "One intriguing possible explanation for this discrepancy is that the cortical neurons might be acting as 'coincidence detectors,'" said Buck. "They might respond only when they get input from more than one type of odorant receptor. And this is fascinating because each odorant is recogn...

Roots Engage in Underground Chemical Warfare

...uction of these antimicrobial chemicals offers one explanation for why so few bacteria types actually cause disease in plants. Of the more than 50,000 plant diseases occurring in the United States, fungal pathogens are the leading cause. "Current understanding of plant defenses does not readily explain why a pa...

Molecular fossils uncover link between viruses and the immune system

...une system share the same structure. One plausible explanation may be that viral building blocks served as precursors for the evolutionary more recent immune system of animals. These results are an outcome of recent advances in structural biology, a new discipline integrating applied physics, biochemistry and b...

Research may provide new link between soft drinks and weight gain

...hen fructose is added to diets may not be the only explanation for weight gain. Instead, he said, consuming fructose appears to affect metabolic rate in a way that favors fat storage. "Our study shows how fat mass increases as a direct consequence of soft drink consumption," said Dr. Tschöp. The research appea...

Antiretroviral Therapy May Prevent HIV Transmission From Breastfeeding Mothers To Infants

...utes to mother-to-child transmission. One possible explanation for this lack of association between antiretroviral therapy and HIV DNA levels, the investigators hypothesized, may be the short duration of treatment in the study (a median of 98 days). Combination antiretroviral therapy may reduce HIV DNA in breast...

U of T researchers map role of Epstein-Barr virus in cancer

...ure. Frappier says the paper provides a structural explanation of this protein complex so scientists can see in molecular detail how the EBNA1 protein binds to USP7 and the resulting impact on cell growth. Once that level of detail is achieved, she says scientists can then design specific mutations in these prot...

Study shows humans have ability to track odors, much like bloodhounds

...plicating his experiments, according to Sobel. One explanation for this failure was that von Bekesy used chemicals that stimulate not only the olfactory nerve in the nose, but also a nasal sensory nerve, the trigeminal nerve. Most odors stimulate both, and some, like onions and ammonia, are stinging enough to br...

Newly discovered genetic disease sheds light on body's water balance

... were now considering the diagnosis of NSIAD as an explanation for low sodium levels in their pediatric patients." MEDICAL MYSTERY The discovery of NSIAD began in 2003 after two unrelated baby boys, each about three months old, were referred to UCSF Children's Hospital with symptoms of fluid overload and strik...

Researchers Discover That Microbes Can Produce Miniature Electrical Wires

...etals or electrodes. This new research provides an explanation of how this can happen. Previous studies in Lovley's laboratory demonstrated that Geobacter produces fine, hairlike structures, known as pili, on just one side of the cell. Lovley's team speculated that the pili might be miniature wires extending fr...

Major advance made on DNA structure

...uence. The human genome project, with its detailed explanation of the genetic sequence of the entire human genome, is one side of the coin. The other side is understanding how the three-dimensional structure of different types of DNA are defined by those sequences, and, ultimately, how that defines biological fu...

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