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Tag: "evolved" at biology news

Dysentery uses 'sword and shield' to cause infection

...ysentery. In this case, the dysentery bacteria has evolved into a highly effective and dangerous infection." ...

New binding target for oncogenic viral protein

...lication machinery. In order to do this, they have evolved mechanisms to override normal cellular replication controls. Simian virus 40 (SV40) accomplishes this task by producing the highly oncogenic large T antigen. This protein corrupts the cellular checkpoint mechanisms that guard cell division and the tr...

Genome of deadly amoeba shows surprising complexity, evidence of lateral gene transfer

...a fascinating glimpse of how this ancient parasite evolved and highlight unusual metabolic processes that may be exploitable as drug targets." The project also identified some large families of surface proteins that may help mediate the amoeba's ability to evade the human immune system. This could explain w...

Learning to fight an adversary that won't stay down

...t the University of British Columbia. "We haven't evolved in our thinking sufficiently to be able to match the microbes," says Dr. Davies, Scientific Director of the Canadian Bacterial Diseases Network. "Pharmaceutical companies and other researchers have put hundreds of millions of dollars into 'modern' ap...

An HIV Protein Plays a Surprising Role in Gene Activation

...ng gene expression, and retroviruses like HIV have evolved myriad ways of redirecting that machinery to their own benefit. Humans and other eukaryotes have three types of RNA polymerases, each charged with transcribing different types of genetic elements. RNA polymerase II transcribes protein-coding genes. ...

New Clues Add 40,000 Years to Age of Human Species

...uggests we all trace to an ancient line that first evolved in Africa and then displaced other hominids as recently as 50,000 years ago. Ian McDougall of Australian National University (ANU), Frank Brown of the University of Utah and John Fleagle of Stony Brook University, report their findings in the Feb. 1...

Highly adaptable genome in gut bacterium key to intestinal health

...hen its usual source of food is gone, B. theta has evolved an elaborate mechanism for sensing changes in its nutrient landscape and quickly changing its dietary preferences so that it can use whatever is most plentiful. In fact, it can call on a larger repertoire of genes related to carbohydrate digestion th...

Amino acids in nectar enhance butterfly fecundity: A long awaited link

... successfully pollinate their flowers, plants have evolved intriguing mechanisms and attractants, of which nectar is best known. Thirty years ago, researchers discovered that nectars of flowers pollinated by butterflies contain substantial amounts of amino acids. Recent experiments have shown that butterfli...

Ants Genetic Engineering Leads To Species Interdependency

...icengineering to the list of innovations ants have evolved to employ. Intwo species of harvester ants, populations have been discovered inwhich queens mate with males of another species to produce geneticallynovel hybrid workers.In a new study, Dr. Sara Helms Cahan and colleagues demonstrate thatboth of the ...

Same mutation aided evolution in many fish species, Stanford study finds

... and lead author of the study. "Although the trait evolved many times all over the world, nature uses the same gene each time." Sticklebacks evolved from a relatively uniform marine population into today's broad spectrum of shapes and sizes when the...

Researchers trace evolution to relatively simple genetic changes

...ce age ended 10,000 to 15,000 years ago. Then they evolved along separate paths, each adapting to the unique ...on. In contrast, some freshwater sticklebacks have evolved to have almost no body armor. "It's rather like a military decision, to be either heavily armored a...

Octopuses occasionally stroll around on two arms, UC Berkeley biologists report

...ce age ended 10,000 to 15,000 years ago. Then they evolved along separate paths, each adapting to the unique ...on. In contrast, some freshwater sticklebacks have evolved to have almost no body armor. "It's rather like a military decision, to be either heavily armored a...

Studies reveal methods viruses use to sidestep immune system

...co-evolved with their hosts, so every time we have evolved a gene with a new function that allows us to fight off a virus, the virus adapts and comes up with a new function of its own to counteract our defenses." Further defining how RNA viruses target and control host immune defenses will aid in drug devel...

Jumping gene helps explain immune system's abilities

...netic processes behindantigen diversity might have evolved from the activity of a jumpinggene, likely a close relative of Hermes."Recognition of so many antigens allows the immune system to fightinfection and distinguish friend from foe. The "big picture" behindthis ability is that cells build proteins calle...

UCSD Discovery Shows How Embryonic Stem Cells Perform 'Quality Control' Inspections

...netic processes behindantigen diversity might have evolved from the activity of a jumpinggene, likely a close relative of Hermes."Recognition of so many antigens allows the immune system to fightinfection and distinguish friend from foe. The "big picture" behindthis ability is that cells build proteins calle...

Scientists document complex genomic events leading to the birth of new genes

...to, and pufferfish) for single-copy genes that had evolved more than one copy in humans. "Gene duplication is known to play a leading role in evolution for the creation of new genes," explained Francesca Ciccarelli, Ph.D., lead author on the study. The key to this, however, is that the duplicated copies of g...

New therapy for HIV/AIDS eliminates needles and excessive toxicity

...netic processes behindantigen diversity might have evolved from the activity of a jumpinggene, likely a close relative of Hermes."Recognition of so many antigens allows the immune system to fightinfection and distinguish friend from foe. The "big picture" behindthis ability is that cells build proteins calle...

Gene sequencing explains bioremediation 'bug'

...netic processes behindantigen diversity might have evolved from the activity of a jumpinggene, likely a close relative of Hermes."Recognition of so many antigens allows the immune system to fightinfection and distinguish friend from foe. The "big picture" behindthis ability is that cells build proteins calle...

Examination of internal 'wiring' of yeast, worm, and fly reveals conserved circuits

...cellular functions. He said that just as a species evolved new proteins to give it a selective advantage, it also could have evolved a new combination of existing proteins. Such novel arrangements would have generated new capabilitie...

Falling ants glide back to trunk to avoid dangers of forest floor

...ts are secondarily wingless, meaning they probably evolved the ability to glide after they lost their permanent wings, which were common in primitive ants. "This discovery doesn't necessarily say something about the evolution of flight in terms of insect lineages, but it does give us good information about ...

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