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Tag: "evade" at biology news

Staphylococcus aureus hides out in cells

...mal infections, Staphylococcus aureus bacteria may evade the immune system’s defences and dodge antibiotics by climbing into our cells and then lying low to avoid detection. New research in the online open access journal BMC Genomics shows how S. aureus makes itself at home in human lung cells for up to tw...

New vaccine prevents CMV infection and disease in mice

...lles’ heel’ in the defenses that the virus uses to evade the immune system,” said Spector. “The virus has evolved to persist in the host by evading the immune responses either by hiding or by misdirecting the host’s immune responses. We found a way to teach the host immune system to not be tricked by the...

Genome of Clostridium botulinum reveals the background to world's deadliest toxin

...ows that C. botulinum doesn’t have subtle tools to evade our human defences or tricky methods of acquiring resistance to antibiotics. It lives either as a dormant spore or as a scavenger of decaying animal materials in the soil, and doesn’t interact with human or other large animal hosts for prolonged peri...

The quest for an effective HIV vaccine presents new possibilities, challenges

... of its ability to integrate into target cells and evade clearance by the immune system. The interaction between HIV and the immune system is complex, and how different HIV-specific immune responses help to control infection is only partially understood. "The development of an HIV vaccine is a complex r...

Investigating the measles virus as a tool to kill multiple myeloma

... overexpress a protein, CD46, which allows them to evade destruction by the immune system. Laboratory strains of measles virus seek out this protein and use it as a receptor by which to enter the cancer cells. Upon entry, the virus spreads, infecting nearby tumor cells and fusing them together, increasing ...

Bacterial walls come tumbling down

... demand as microbes continually evolve new ways to evade the drugs that researchers design to thwart them. The time it takes for bacteria to develop resistance to new antibiotics has been as short as one year for penicillin V and as long as 30 years for vancomycin. Researchers attempting to solve the st...

Antifungal drug kills TB bug

...at the TB bacterium was a clever organism, able to evade the human immune system and to survive long-term, sometimes unnoticed, in the body. We also realised that these peculiar features of the TB bacterium must mean that there are ‘unusual?aspects of its composition and biochemistry that set it apart from...

Chimpanzees found to use tools to hunt mammalian prey

...bushbabies move quickly and might otherwise easily evade chimpanzees once roused). Two notable aspects of the behavior observed in the Fongoli group were that on the one hand, it is rare for chimpanzees to consume prosimian prey—in other study sites, red colobus monkeys, hunted mainly by males, are the ...

Widely used hepatitis B drug spurs HIV drug resistance

...s renowned for its ability to change form and thus evade or develop resistance to therapies designed to stop its action. Similar testing with entecavir, immune cells and the M184V form of HIV showed that the drug did not stop the virus from infecting the cells. This provided evidence, scientists say,...

Key to lung cancer chemo resistance revealed

...tort NRF2 and KEAP1 expression to help tumor cells evade the toxic effects of chemotherapy," says Shyam Biswal, Ph.D., associate professor at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Kimmel Cancer Center, who published results of cell culture studies in the October 3, 2006 issue of PLoS Medi...

HIV gets a makeover

...ns Hatziioannou created an HIV-1 mutant that could evade the monkey cells' TRIM5 recognition. Another bit of engineering was required to get around the second obstacle: APOBEC proteins produced by a host normally cause invading viruses to mutate so much that they can't survive, but HIV-1 uses a protein...

Evolution and the workaround

...ight into how pathogens and cancer cells mutate to evade the body’s defenses and resist treatment with drugs. The Stowers researchers used the benign budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as their model organism and deleted a key cell division gene called MYO1. Surely, eliminating this important gen...

Experimental vaccine protects mice against deadly 1918 flu virus

...eir vulnerabilities and determine whether they can evade immune recognition," says Dr. Nabel. "What we learn about the H1N1 virus that caused the 1918 pandemic is pertinent to other pandemic viruses and to the development of effective and universal vaccines." Using the genetic sequence information for th...

Study shows how herpes infects cornea, evades immune cells

...interesting possibility that herpes may be able to evade the immune system defenses in the same way," he said. "Understanding herpes' unusual pathway for infecting the stroma cells opens up new strategies for developing therapies against this potentially blinding disease and has implications for understan...

Molecular 'on/off switch' controls immune defenses against viruses

... centers on studying the mechanisms viruses use to evade immune defenses. Of particular interest is the hepatitis C virus, a blood-borne infection transmitted by intravenous drug use, blood transfusions and sexual contact. It affects 4 million U.S. residents and is the nation's leading cause of cirrhosis a...

Mayo Clinic Cancer Center: Harnessing the measles virus to attack cancer

...pecific protein, CD46, which allows tumor cells to evade destruction by the immune system. Strains of the measles virus, including the one in this study, seek out this protein, entering the glioblastoma multiforme tumor. Upon entry, the virus begins to spread, infecting nearby tumor cells and fusing them...

MRSA vaccine shows promise in mouse study

...ity. One by one, this organism has learned how to evade nearly all of our current antibiotics. So, generating protective immunity against invasive S. aureus has become an important goal." Previous vaccine attempts using killed or live attenuated bacteria, or selected bacterial subunits, produced, at be...

Potato blight pathogenicity explained by genome plasticity

... Avr genes are thought to undergo rapid changes to evade detection by plants that possess R genes, which means that many strains of Phytophthora and potato are likely to be evolving at the present time. " P. infestans is notorious for its ability to change in response to R genes," says Dr. Franci...

AIDS vaccine research offers new insights on survival

...been unsuccessful. "HIV mutates so quickly it can evade antibody immunity," explains Letvin. Instead, Letvin and other scientists in this field have focused their work on developing a vaccine that confers cellular immunity, so that a group of T-cells induced by a vaccine recognizes the cells that have bee...

HIV-1's high virulence might be an accident of evolution

...at a viral protein earlier shown to help the virus evade the immune system, thereby allowing the SIVs that infect monkeys to persist and multiply with high efficiency, also has a protective role in the host immune system. The viral Nef protein ratchets down the activation of critical agents of immunity cal...

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