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Tag: "eukaryotes" at biology news

Puzzling plankton yield secrets to role in evolution/global photosynthesis

...oscopic, free-living creatures, among the smallest eukaryotes ever characterized, barely a micron in diameter, contribute to a significant share of the world’s total photosynthetic activity. These "picophytoplankton" also exhibit great diversity that contrasts sharply with the dearth of ecological niches availa...

DNA ends: Common tool, different job

...d is wrapped up by a dedicated protein complex. In eukaryotes or organisms whose cells have a nucleus, this job is handled by a tripartite complex called replication protein A (RPA). Researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies have now unearthed a novel RPA-like complex that specifically homes in o...

Microbe fixes nitrogen at a blistering 92 C

...three main branches of life ?bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes ?diverged some 3.5 billion years ago, according to oceanographer Mausmi Mehta, who recently received her doctorate from the UW, and John Baross, UW professor of oceanography. This is opposed to the theory that the nitrogenase system arose within arch...

Molecular DNA switch found to be the same for all life

...ly initiated at a single sites, DNA replication in eukaryotes can be an immensely complicated multi-event affair...y, the mechanism for initiating DNA replication in eukaryotes was presumed to be much different than the prokaryote initiator. Studies over the past decade ha...

Scientists uncover rules for gene amplification

...rules operating in yeast can be extended to higher eukaryotes then we can propose that if the oncogene is located between the hairpin-capped break and the telomere, then the amplification event will result in a double minute. If the break occurs between the oncogene and the telomere, then the amplification woul...

Advanced genomics and proteomics improve the diagnosis and treatment of a deadly lung disease

...dia Dicer is smaller than the Dicer found in other eukaryotes and we don't know why that is. What do the bells and whistles on the human enzyme do?" Knowing Dicer's structure, scientists can now begin to tease out the mysteries of how Dicer functions, Doudna said. In particular, scientists would like to know h...

Molecule does more than slice and dice RNA

...dia Dicer is smaller than the Dicer found in other eukaryotes and we don't know why that is. What do the bells and whistles on the human enzyme do?" Knowing Dicer's structure, scientists can now begin to tease out the mysteries of how Dicer functions, Doudna said. In particular, scientists would like to know h...

Bacteria which sense the Earth's magnetic field

...nd which, for a long time, have only been known in eukaryotes -- i.e., organisms whose cells have nuclei. The fact that the chain structure of bacterial nanomagnets is exactly regulated by genetics could also have implications for our understanding of the way higher organisms orient themselves to the magnetic ...

North & South American researchers find architectural abnormalities in T. cruzi ribosome

...nk sees the parasite as a primitive link to modern eukaryotes and its ribosome as a source of potential insights into the evolution of more complex organisms. "Ribosomes perform the translation of genetic information into protein in all organisms," Frank said. "The principle is always the same in plants, bacte...

Field tested: Grasslands won't help buffer climate change as carbon dioxide levels rise

...e uniform and without organization, while cells of eukaryotes have a complex organization," Yeates said. "That contrast is becoming less stark; we are learning there is more of a continuum than a sharp divide. These microcompartments, which resemble viruses because they are built from thousands of protein subun...

Nighttime Dying Linked To Sleep Apnea From Brain Cell Loss

...e uniform and without organization, while cells of eukaryotes have a complex organization," Yeates said. "That contrast is becoming less stark; we are learning there is more of a continuum than a sharp divide. These microcompartments, which resemble viruses because they are built from thousands of protein subun...

New discovery blurs distinction between human cells and those of bacteria

...e uniform and without organization, while cells of eukaryotes have a complex organization," Yeates said. "That contrast is becoming less stark; we are learning there is more of a continuum than a sharp divide. These microcompartments, which resemble viruses because they are built from thousands of protein subun...

Scientists find microRNAs regulate plant development

...e are many AGO1-like proteins in animals and other eukaryotes as well, indicating that the RNA-induced silencing complex is of ancient evolutionary origin, and that microRNA-mediated regulation of gene expression is shared among many eukaryotes. Arabidopsis ago1 mutants lacking the AGO1 protein have numerous se...

Biologists determine genetic blueprint of social amoeba

...elium belongs, evolved from the common ancestor of eukaryotes (the group of organisms that contain all animals, plants, algae, protozoa, slime mold and fungi) before fungi. Dictyostelium has about 12,000 genes that produce a greater variety of proteins than the approximately 6,000 found in fungi. And its genes ...

Map of life on Earth could be used on Mars

... can be divided into haves and have-nots: cells of eukaryotes contain a nucleus, while prokaryotic organisms cells do not. Prokaryotic organisms encompass archeal and bacterial domains of life. Archeal organisms diverge further into euryarcheota and Crenarcheota lineages. By piecing together genetic sequences o...

An HIV Protein Plays a Surprising Role in Gene Activation

... machinery to their own benefit. Humans and other eukaryotes have three types of RNA polymerases, each charged with transcribing different types of genetic elements. RNA polymerase II transcribes protein-coding genes. RNA polymerases join with so-called general transcription factors to form a pre-initiation co...

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