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Molecule that usually protects infection-fighting cells may cause plaque deposits inside arteries

A molecule that usually protects the body's infection-fighting cells might also contribute to fatty buildups that coat arteries and lead to heart disease, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have found. . The molecule, called apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage or AIM, inhibits cell death in macrophages, which circulate in the bloodstream and help the body fend off infection and foreign subs...

FDA Announces Series of Changes to the Class of Marketed Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today announced a series of important changes pertaining to the marketing of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory class of drugs, including COX-2 selective and prescription and non-prescription (over-the-counter (OTC)) non-selective NSAID medications. A list of these products is available on the Internet at http://www.fda.gov/cder/drug/infopage/cox2/default.h...

Advancements In Genomics Foster Deep Sea Discoveries

At one time, scientists wondered whether life existed in the deep recesses of the world’s oceans. What kinds of creatures, they wondered, could withstand the dark, cold and extreme pressure of such an environment? .. . Scripps Institution Professor Douglas Bartlett discussed the new findings at the...

Affymetrix and bioMerieux Extend Their Agreement on GeneChip(R) Technology to Breast Cancer Diagnostics

Affymetrix Inc. (Nasdaq: AFFX) and bioMerieux announced today that Affymetrix has granted bioMerieux long-term and comprehensive access to its GeneChip(R) technology to develop and market in vitro diagnostic tests for breast cancer, as well as an option to expand the agreement into other cancer areas. . .. "Microarrays are o...

ORNL, UC Berkeley unravel real-world clues to Earth's mysteries

A microbial community thriving under bizarre natural conditions in California could be a gold mine to researchers in their quest to understand the complex biological relationships and how these inner workings might apply on a grander scale. . In a paper to appear today on Science Online, researchers from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of California Ber...

Tufts researchers shine light on firefly mysteries

This summer, in a darkened meadow west of Boston, Tufts University biologists are continuing to shine new light on the frenzied love life of fireflies. .. . "If female mate choice is adaptive, we would expect that the more attractive males would provide...

Discoveries by UAB and Florida scientists may help transplanted organs survive longer

Scientists may have found a way to dramatically slow organ transplant rejection by as much as several years. .. . .. "One of the principal proble...

How satellite tracking revealed the migratory mysteries of endangered Atlantic loggerhead turtles

Their journeys are among the longest in the animal kingdom and they have largely remained a mystery until now. An international team of scientists led by the University of Exeter have uncovered the migratory secrets of endangered loggerhead turtles in West Africa and the results could have huge implications for strategies to protect them. . In a paper in the journal Current Biology, Dr Brendan Go...

Penguin chicks exposed to human visitors experience spike in stress hormone

Newly hatched magellanic penguin chicks in breeding grounds with a large number of human visitors show a significant spike in levels of a stress-related hormone compared to chicks hatched in areas not visited by humans, a University of Washington research team has found. . It wasn't until chicks with limited human exposure reached 40 to 50 days old that they showed a stress response like the newl...

Virtual animal shelters ?How the Internet is transforming the experience of pet adoptions

Across the United States, independent pet rescue organizations are growing in number, working to place abandoned animals in loving new homes. Although the majority of these organizations operate out of clusters of private foster homes, they're successfully winning high visibility for placing their pooches. . In a presentation at the 100th annual meeting of the American Sociological Association (A...

Dangerous tricksters: Some bacterie use immune cells to reproduce

Macrophages are effective weapons used by our immune system to absorb and digest pathogenic intruders. Some bacteria, however, can subvert this defence mechanism and even multiply within the macrophages. Cell biologists at the University of Bonn have revealed such a strategy in a recently publication in the journal 'Traffic' (Vol. 6, No. 8, August 2005, pp.635-653). Their findings reveal that the...

Tsunami + 1 year: Reviving exhausted fisheries should trump replacing boats, gear, experts say

One year after a tsunami devastated South Asian communities, global fisheries experts say habitat restoration, retraining and education programs are much needed to revive severely exhausted fisheries and steer survivors into more sustainable livelihoods than fishing. . http://www.worldfishcenter.org/tsunami/default.asp</...

Past experience of pheromones induces dominant courtship behavior in fruit flies

By investigating the interplay between pheromone signaling and behavior in fruit flies, researchers have begun to understand how an adult fly's earlier experience as a young individual can influence its behavior towards other flies as an adult. In particular, the researchers found that pheromone signals in the context of experience with adult flies can influence how young flies will behave once t...

Seal rookeries could provide a reliable food source for endangered California condors, study finds

A team of scientists is proposing that endangered California condors raised in captivity be released near seal and sea lion rookeries so that the birds can once again feast on the carcasses of marine mammals as their ancestors did centuries ago. . The researchers from Stanford University and four other institutions base their conclusion on the feeding behavior of modern and early condors and thei...

Genetic key to growth of new arteries is identified

Researchers at the San Francisco VA Medical Center have uncovered part of the genetic mechanism that causes new arteries to grow in response to blocked arteries. . .. .. The study appears in the November 8 issue of the Proceedings of th...

Terahertz imaging may reduce breast cancer surgeries

A promising new technique to ensure complete tumor removal at breast cancer excision is introduced in the May issue of Radiology. . .. "We found that terahertz light could reliably distinguish between normal breast tissue, tumor an...

When mice choose mates, experience counts

Choosing a mate is a big decision. And, at least for mice, it's one that is best made with input from one's peers. . .. "Our data suggest that female mice may use, or even copy, the interests of other females based on olfactory cues," says Pfaff, who is head of the Laboratory of Neurob...

Brain differences could explain why males and females experience pain relief differently

A study conducted by investigators at Georgia State University and the Atlanta-based Center for Behavioral Neuroscience (CBN) reports that anatomical and functional differences in the brain may explain sex differences in the experience of pain and in the effects of certain drugs on pain. . The finding, reported in the April 13 issue of the Journal of Comparative Neurology, is the first report o...

Intensive statin therapy may partially reverse plaque build-up in arteries

A study presented today at the American College of Cardiology's 55th Annual Scientific Session demonstrates, for the first time, that very intensive cholesterol lowering with a statin drug can regress (partially reverse) the buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries. . This finding has never before been observed in a study using statin drugs, the most commonly used cholesterol lowering treatme...

Unraveling the mysteries of poison

Researchers from the Max Planck Institite for Biophysical Chemistry and other German and French colleagues have combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy (solid-state NMR) with special protein synthesis procedures to uncover how potassium channels and toxins combine and change in structure. This work could make it possible to develop medications for high blood pressure and many other diseases conn...

Underwater listening devices yield discoveries about endangered large whales

Why whales emit their characteristic calls remains largely a biological mystery, but listening for the distinctive underwater sounds provides a valuable way to track the movements of endangered large whales. Autonomous data-recording devices equipped with hydrophones (underwater microphones), deployed in remote waters off Alaska, have been used in recent years to track seasonal occurrences of bl...

MIT researchers build tiny batteries with viruses

MIT scientists have harnessed the construction talents of tiny viruses to build ultra-small "nanowire" structures for use in very thin lithium-ion batteries. . .. The goal of the work, led by MIT Professors Angela Belcher, Paula Hammond and Yet-Ming Chiang, is to create batteries that cram as much electrical energy into as small or lightweight a package as possible. The batteries they hope to bui...

Just the expectation of a mirthful laughter experience boosts endorphins 27 percent, HGH 87 percent

There's no doubt that laughter feels good, but is there real neurophysiology behind it and what can you do about it? . .. According to Berk: "The blood drawn from experimental subjects just before they watched...

Genes discovered that allow gum disease bacterium to invade arteries

Researchers have identified the genes in gum-disease bacteria that allow them to invade and infect human arterial cells, offering one possible explanation for a perceived connection between gum disease and heart disease. Scientists from the University of Florida, Gainesville, present their findings today at the 106th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology in Orlando, Florida. ....

Long-term changes in experience cause neurons to sprout new long-lasting connections

Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers have discovered that neurons in the brains of mice sprout robust new connections when the animals are adjusting to new experiences. The new connections alter the circuitry of the brain by changing communication between neurons. . .. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) investigator Karel Svoboda and his colleagues repor...

Hopkins scientists show hallucinogen in mushrooms creates universal 'mystical' experience

Using unusually rigorous scientific conditions and measures, Johns Hopkins researchers have shown that the active agent in "sacred mushrooms" can induce mystical/spiritual experiences descriptively identical to spontaneous ones people have reported for centuries. . .. The agent, a plant alkaloid called psilocybin, mimics the effect of serotonin on brain receptors-as do some other hallucinogens-...

3-D ultrasound scanner could guide robotic surgeries

Duke University engineers have shown that a three-dimensional ultrasound scanner they developed can successfully guide a surgical robot. . .. "It's the first time, to our knowledge, that anyone has used the information in a 3-D ultrasound scan to actually guide a robot," said Stephen Smith, professor of biomedical engi...

Two central mysteries in genome inheritance solved at UCSD

The dance of the chromosomes during cell division, first described in the late 1800s and familiar to all high-school students from movies shown in biology classes, has long fascinated biologists. However, the molecular nature of a key component of cell division, the "chromosome-spindle" connection, which is critical for the inheritance of genetic information as cells divide, has remained elusive...

Theory of oscillations may explain biological mysteries

New mathematical studies of the interactions between oscillating biological populations may shed light on some of the toughest questions in ecology, including the number and types of species in an ecosystem, according to an article in the December 2006 issue of BioScience. The article, by John Vandermeer of the University of Michigan, shows how extensions of established theory suggest that many a...

Researchers to study why dead zone returned to Lake Erie

A $2.5 million grant will fund a 5-year study examining why dead zones have returned to Lake Erie, and researchers hope the findings will allow them to detect the cause and stop the spread before the fishery and tourism industries suffer. . "This is a very serious problem," said University of Michigan's Donald Scavia, professor in the School of Natural Resources and Environment, and lead investi...

Experience affects new neuron survival in adult brain; study sheds light on learning, memory

Experience in the early development of new neurons in specific brain regions affects their survival and activity in the adult brain, new research shows. How these new neurons store information about these experiences may explain how they can affect learning and memory in adults. . A team of researchers headed by Fred Gage, PhD, of the Salk Institute, found that experience enhances the survival...

Out-of-body experiences may be caused by arousal system disturbances in brain

Having an out-of-body experience may seem far-fetched to some, but for those with arousal system disturbances in their brains, it may not be a far off idea that they could sense they were really outside their own body watching themselves. In previous studies of more than 13,000 Europeans, almost 6 percent said they have had such an out-of-body experience. . Dr. Kevin Nelson and a research team at...
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