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Tag: "enzymes" at biology news

Enzyme, lost in most mammals, is shown to protect against UV-induced skin cancer

... to mammalian cells becausephotolyases ?a class of enzymes capable of efficiently repairing theselesions ?have apparently been lost from placental mammals over thecourse of evolution.Thus, most mammals, including humans, can only repair these lesionsthrough a much less direct and elaborate process called nuc...

New binding target for oncogenic viral protein

...degraded and brings them in close proximity to the enzymes that attach ubiquitin. The proteins recognized by Fbw7 play key roles in cell division, cell growth, differentiation, and cell death. "These proteins are also some of the most broadly acting cellular oncogenes, and include cyclin E, c-Myc, Notch, an...

Genome of deadly amoeba shows surprising complexity, evidence of lateral gene transfer

...: Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia lamblia. "The enzymes that form the basis of these shared metabolic strategies are substantially different from human enzymes, making them potential targets of inhibitors that could form the basis of new drug therapies," says TIGR President Claire M. Fraser, who supervise...

Computers to be used to find blueprint for new influenza drug

...imited. He and Dr Ruggiero will study sialidases, enzymes used by the flu virus to snip off a special type o...he infection. Because of similarities between the enzymes used by different viruses and bacteria, a similar approach may also be useful in fighting other dise...

Combination therapy boosts effectiveness of telomere-directed cancer cell death

...rter until eventually they become so short thatthe enzymes that copy DNA for cell division no longer work properly andthe cell stops dividing. In a sense, telomeres function as a kind ofcounting mechanism that regulates how many times a cell can divide.In contrast to normal cells, cancer cells divide continu...

GATA: a graphic alignment tool for comparative sequence analysis

...rter until eventually they become so short thatthe enzymes that copy DNA for cell division no longer work properly andthe cell stops dividing. In a sense, telomeres function as a kind ofcounting mechanism that regulates how many times a cell can divide.In contrast to normal cells, cancer cells divide continu...

Genome-wide mouse study yields link to human leukemia

... among the three groups of mice ?a method of using enzymes and gel electrophoresis to map tiny bits of DNA on a grid. The stretches of DNA, referred to as fragments, show up as smudgy blobs on a test film. If a fragment is dark and definite, it is not methylated. If, on the other hand, it loses at least 30 p...

Novel Enzyme Shows Potential As An Anti-HIV Target

... for transcription. Acetylation and deacetylation enzymes can also target other proteins. Of the three class...n a test tube with Tat proteins. Though three SIRT enzymes caused Tat acetylation, only one, SIRT1, is a nuclear enzyme, like Tat, suggesting that SIRT1 might ...

Gene variations explain drug dose required to control seizures

...n drug targets, transporters and drug metabolizing enzymes are good starting points for understanding variation among patients in drug response." In Parkinson's disease, for example, a pharmacogenetic test might assist physicians in prescribing the drug dose that will balance short-term control of tremors w...

Vital step in cellular migration described by UCSD medical researchers

... team discovered that the alpha4 integrin recruits enzymes that block Rac activity only at the rear of a crawling cell. The scientists noted that alpha4 integrins are widely expressed in neural crest cells, immune system leukocytes (such as T cells), striated and smooth muscle, and neurons. For this reason,...

Highly adaptable genome in gut bacterium key to intestinal health

...'bite-sized' pieces; the utensils are a variety of enzymes directed at different types of carbohydrates." Wh...d mucus carbohydrates. "By changing its digestive enzymes and surface proteins, the bacterium changed its dining room seating from food particles to the mucus...

New protein discovered by Hebrew University researchers

... been found to be capable ofsurviving contact with enzymes that break down proteins or exposure toextreme conditions such as boiling, excessive acidity, salinity,organic solvents or detergent solutions. Theresearch was conducted at the Hebrew University's Faculty ofAgricultural, Food and Environmental Quali...

The death of a very special chimpanzee

... been found to be capable ofsurviving contact with enzymes that break down proteins or exposure toextreme conditions such as boiling, excessive acidity, salinity,organic solvents or detergent solutions. Theresearch was conducted at the Hebrew University's Faculty ofAgricultural, Food and Environmental Quali...

UF Researchers Map Bacterial Proteins That Cause Tooth Loss

...day biology of life, going about their business as enzymes and antibodies. They can also cause disease. “The genes themselves are only important in that they encode the proteins,?Lamont said. “It’s the proteins that are most responsible for disease, and in most cases it’s proteins that are vaccine and drug ...

Effective Cancer Treatments Follow The Clock

...ne. “This was a real surprise, because some of the enzymes involved in activating CY in the liver show circadian rhythms,?said Takahashi. “We thought that the liver might be activating the drug more strongly at some times, or detoxifying it less effectively, or both.?/p> However, when the researchers ana...

Molecular models advance the fight against malaria

...ntinued their work on previous studies using yeast enzymes to explore atovaquone resistance. It is not possible to grow enough malaria parasites to isolate and study the respiratory enzyme cytochrome bc1 complex, which the parasites need to live and multiply. A protein subunit of the bc1 complex is where the...

Transgenic plants remove more selenium from polluted soil than wild plants, new tests show

...genic lines were engineered to produce more of the enzymes gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (ECS) and glutathione synthetase (GS), both of which play key roles in the production of glutathione. Glutathione, part of the plant's antioxidant system, may be buffering the impact of the contaminants, said the re...

Rare surgery performed to remove pancreas, prevent diabetes

... of digestive enzymes, is dealt with by taking the enzymes as a dietary supplement. Leading the complex operation were Drs. Selwyn M. Vickers, Devin E. Eckhoff and Juan L. Contreras. Vickers, who removed the pancreas, directs a clinic for the management of chronic pancreatitis, is chief of gastrointestinal ...

Researchers uncover sequence of major rice pathogen

...ew virulence-associated genes, and large suites of enzymes involved in secondary metabolism. Consistent with a role in fungal pathogenesis, the expression of several of these genes is upregulated during the early stages of infection-related development. The M. grisea genome has been subject to invasion and p...

Researchers report new pro-inflammatory role for anti-inflammatory enzyme

...hanisms, mostly related to inhibition of metabolic enzymes and destruction of DNA." However, too much NO can be a bad thing. Sustained overproduction of NO can cause septic shock (sepsis). "In sepsis, which is a systemic bacterial infection, the body expresses iNOS which generates relatively high concentrat...

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