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Tag: "enzyme" at biology news

Enzyme delivered in smaller package protects cells from radiation damage

...t may be effective in delivering a radioprotective enzyme systemically throughout the body which may spare h...wing that intravenous gene therapy delivery of the enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) could protect mice from whole body irradiation, and in prepar...

Cells re-energize to come back from the brink of death

...annot undergo apoptosis increases the levels of an enzyme called GAPDH in order to counteract CICD. GAPDH ap...o save cells from CICD suggests that blocking this enzyme would kill abnormal cells that lack caspase activation and cannot undergo apoptosis. That strategy w...

Breakthrough developments in rheumatoid arthritis reported

...g citrulline. Citrulline is formed when a specific enzyme comes in contact with arginine, one of 20 common amino acids in proteins. When one of the enzymes is present, nitrogen is removed from the chemical structure of arginine and it converts into citrulline. Laboratories have developed a test to mea...

Researchers shed light on shrinking of chromosomes

...ion defects.” The EMBL researchers found that an enzyme called Aurora kinase is crucially involved in this process. Blocking this enzyme abolishes late condensation of chromosomes. They now hope to uncover the detailed molecular mechanis...

Potent possibilities for parasite attack

...hat codes for cyclopropane fatty acid synthase, an enzyme that may be involved in producing components of the cell membrane. CFAS is present in the genomes of L. braziliensis and L. infantum, but is absent from the human genome. The parasite genes are thought to have been acquired from bacterial species tha...

UCF nanoparticle offers promise for treating glaucoma

...nd that has been shown to block the activity of an enzyme (hCAII) believed to play a central role in causing...ioxide inside the eye, and the compound blocks the enzyme that produces carbon dioxide. Seal and a team of collaborators including Sanku Mallik, of North D...

'Smart' mice teach scientists about learning process, brain disorders

Mice genetically engineered to lack a single enzyme in their brains are more adept at learning than th...iction to drugs of abuse, so understanding how the enzyme affects the brain and behavior might aid in the development of new treatments for these and other co...

An 'elegant' idea proves its worth 25 years later

... large doses to make up for the missing urea cycle enzyme they inherited," says Ada Hamosh, M.D., M.P.H, clinical director of the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine. "Sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate already know how to eliminate nitrogen in urine, so having more in the body carries more...

Salk scientists hammer out a pathway that promotes muscle cell survival in mice

...nstitute for Biological Studies have identified an enzyme that pumps up a cell’s ability to maintain healthy...re Medicine, is the first to explore the part this enzyme plays in a cascade of events triggered by exercise-induced hormones and other signals. In this par...

Hearts of male and female rainbow trout are different

...lic pathway) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), the enzyme allowing carbohydrates to be oxidized -- differ between the sexes. The researchers hypothesized that male hearts would have higher citrate levels and females would benefit more from the stimulation of PDH than males. The study also sought to det...

Peramivir protects mice from lethal H5N1 infection

... blocks the ability of influenza viruses to use an enzyme called neuraminidase, thus preventing the release of new virus particles and their spread from one infected cell to another. The St. Jude team studied different approaches to treating infected mice according to duration of administration (one day...

Scientists discover rare 'gene-for-gene' interaction that helps bacteria kill their host

...roduce an antibiotic which inhibits the work of an enzyme that insects' immune systems use to defend themsel...part of their innate immune system, insects use an enzyme called phenoloxidase to produce reactive molecules that kill bacteria and then encapsulate them in a...

Nitric oxide: Key to cardiovascular and pulmonary function and drug effectiveness

...tivated the receptors are quickly turned-off by an enzyme called a G protein-coupled receptor kinase. This process is called desensitization and can limit the effectiveness of many drugs, such as opiates for pain and adrenaline for asthma, and is further associated with numerous diseases including those of ...

8 plants from South Africa may hold potential for treating high blood pressure

...on, including drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB). These drugs not only lower blood pressure but offer additional protection to the brain and heart. ACEI, in particular, provide beneficial properties to patients with type 1 diabetes. In...

Targeting sugar on blood vessels may inhibit cancer growth

...genetic alteration in an important sugar-modifying enzyme (Ndst1), the researchers saw a marked decrease in the growth of experimental carcinomas. The Ndst1 enzyme is responsible for modifying the molecular structure of a sugar called heparan sulfate. In endothe...

Genetic roots of bipolar disorder revealed by first genome-wide study of illness

...itself, a new study shows. However, targeting the enzyme produced by one of these genes could lead to devel...ert its therapeutic effects. The gene produces an enzyme (diacylglycerol kinase eta) that functions at a point closer to the root of the lithium-sensitive pa...

WHO data confirms low level of resistance to Tamiflu

...s by blocking the action of the neuraminidase (NA) enzyme on the surface of the virus. When neuraminidase is inhibited, the virus is not able to spread to and infect other cells in the body. It is licensed for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza in children aged one year and above and in adults. ...

DNA repair proteins monitored at double-strand break

...occurred during the study, the researchers used an enzyme called I-PpoI, which naturally seeks certain DNA a... I-PpoI so that they could better control when the enzyme moves into the nucleus and cleaves the DNA. The team then used a biochemical technique called chroma...

Slowing the racing heart

...in the May 11 issue of Circulation Research how an enzyme acts on the heart's pacemaker to slow the rapid be... cell. The UIC researchers demonstrated that an enzyme called Pak 1, present in high concentrations in the heart, signals depression in the action of adren...

To sleep, perchance to dream: New insight into melatonin production

...mimicked by a protein called AANAT, which is a key enzyme in the melatonin biosynthesis pathway. Dr. Kim and colleagues uncovered the mechanism of rhythmic control of AANAT mRNA translation, and thereby melatonin synthesis. The researchers found that rodent AANAT mRNA translation is mediated by IRES (in...

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