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DNA Molecules Used To Assemble Nanoparticles

...pecifically targeted to cancer cells and are small enough to enter a diseased cell, either killing it from within or sending out a signal to identify it. But making the particles is notoriously difficult and time-consuming. The nanoparticle system used by Baker's lab is based on dendrimers, star-like synth...

Yellowstone microbes fueled by hydrogen, according to U. of Colorado study

...t to explore a microbial ecosystem. "We havea hard enough time explaining what's going on in a forest, for example,with all the interlacing systems. We can't even see a microbialsystem."Sample extraction was a dangerous and delicate operation. In order toaccurately analyze a hot spring's entire microbial co...

Growth in the sea comes down to a struggle for iron

...e oceans during the geologic past may have removed enough carbon from the atmosphere to affect global climate, perhaps even contributing to the onset of ice ages. Martin died in 1993 just as tests of his ideas were getting underway, but scientists have embarked on a series of experiments in three major area...

Poor prenatal nutrition permanently damages function of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas

...on impairs the pancreas's ability to later secrete enough insulin in response to blood glucose. "The bottom line is that if you don't have delivery of enough nutrients from the mother to the baby, the baby's pancreatic cells will be programmed abnormally," s...

Emory Study Tests Bone Marrow Stem Cells to Improve Circulation in Legs

...cent studies show that when muscles do not receive enough blood, thebody makes growth factors that stimulate...ells that "home" to the muscle that is not getting enough blood.These stem cells include endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which isthe type of cell needed ...

Neuronal 'traffic jam' marks early Alzheimer's disease

...ly, some people would accumulate more than others, enough to cross a critical threshold and tip the scale toward disease." Goldstein emphasized that any application of these findings to potential diagnostic tests or new therapies remains speculative at this time. "However, if tracers could be developed tha...

Elusive HIV shape change revealed; Key clue to how virus infects cells

...putational work, to get that picture to sharpen up enough to get an answer." One of the lab's first steps will be to determine which shape of gp120 ?bound to the CD4 receptor, or unbound ?is recognized by a person's antibodies. gp120's shape change is an important "escape mechanism" for HIV, allowing the v...

Tiny particles could solve billion-dollar problem

...ecause only a nanoscale catalyst will be efficient enough to provide the throughput needed to make the whole approach effective. Tests in Wong's lab have found that the gold-palladium nano-catalysts break TCE down about 100 times faster than bulk palladium catalysts. ...

New Technique for Tracking Gene Regulators

...nce them.While small in length, the tags are large enough to allow computersearches to locate their specific positions on the complete genome in amanner that is analogous to a laser scanner reading barcodes on itemsin the grocery store. In this case the inventory isn’t cans of food butthe database of the hu...

“Nano-scissors?laser shows precise surgical capability

...?she says. “Because it happens sofast, there isn’t enough time for heat to diffuse out, so we don’tdamage anything. The pulse’s very short length makes the photons in thelaser concentrate in one area, delivering a lot of power to a tiny,specific volume without damaging surrounding tissue.?Once cut, the axon...

Finding Cures For Tropical Diseases: Is Open Source An Answer?

...e commercial model only works ifcompanies can sell enough patented products to cover their R&Dcosts and produce profits for shareholders. The model thus fails in thedeveloping world, where few patients can afford to pay patented pricesfor drugs. The solution to this devastating problem, say StephenMaure...

Gene therapy converts dead bone graft to new, living tissue

... proteins continuously for up to three weeks, long enough for the body to trigger the perpetual bone remodeling response. Stem cells have also seen success in this area, but Schwarz says their appeal has waned because their handling ?keeping them alive and ready to use ?is far harder than Schwarz's viral pa...

Purdue proves concept of using nano-materials for drug discovery

...mbined with a liquid that contains molecules small enough to easily pass through the pores. The enzyme, which is a protein, was placed inside the vessels - on the inner surface of the alumina membranes - and the liquid was placed outside each vessel so that it covered the opposite side of the membranes. Whe...

Plant hemoglobins: Oxygen handlers critical for nitrogen fixation

...ree-oxygen concentrations in nodules at levels low enough to avoid damage of oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase, the bacterial enzyme complex responsible for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Thus, plant hemoglobins fulfill roles analogous to those of animal hemoglobins, as well as novel roles that are apparently uniq...

Probing The Promise And Perils Of Nanoparticles

...anes, making the membranes more permeable. At high enough concentrations, they can completely destroy the membranes, killing cells in the process. But the damage can be prevented by engineering dendrimers in particular ways, such as modifying their surfaces to make them neutral instead of charged, the scien...

Development of portable infectious disease detector

... andexcrete--oxygen, glucose and lactic acid--with enough sensitivity tomonitor the health of a few thousand cells confined in a small volume.(For more detail see "New device can help defend against novelbiological agents" at[http://exploration.vanderbilt.edu/news/news_microphys.htm].)Under the leadership o...

An entropy-based gene selection method for cancer classification using microarray data

...s difficult. The selected gene set should be small enough to allow diagnosis even in regular clinical laboratories and ideally identify genes involved in cancer-specific regulatory pathways. Here an entropy-based method is proposed that selects genes related to the different cancer classes while at the same...

Nano-Probes Allow an Inside Look at Cell Nuclei

...e and part nano-sized semiconductor, that is small enough to slide through the nuclear membrane's pores and believable enough to slip past the membrane's barriers. "We knew we could get quantum dots inside a cell, but getting...

Zebrafish may hold key to understanding human nerve cell development

...air cells, but only when they are sufficiently far enough away fromthe glial-ensheathed nerve."Once these cells are far enough away from the glia they begin todifferentiate into hair cells. We know something in the glia isregul...

Harmful Bacterium Commonly Found in Poultry May Survive Refrigeration and Frozen Storage Combined

...air cells, but only when they are sufficiently far enough away fromthe glial-ensheathed nerve."Once these cells are far enough away from the glia they begin todifferentiate into hair cells. We know something in the glia isregul...

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