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Simulations unravel outer membrane transport mechanism

...lographic studies had shown that TonB binds to one end of the luminal domain. Researchers had hypothesize...rong enough to remain intact while TonB pulled the end of the luminal domain away from the barrel. The simulation also showed the luminal domain gradually ...

Ancient DNA traces the woolly mammoth's disappearance

...merging of extinction not as a sudden event at the end of the last ice age, but as a piecemeal process over tens of thousands of years involving progressive loss of genetic diversity,” said Dr. Ian Barnes, of Royal Holloway, University of London. “For the mammoth, this seems much more likely to have been...

'Lucky 13' as new gene discovery offers further hope for childhood blindness

... thin cells with a highly evolved structure on one end (the outer segment) which detects light and sends signals to the brain, a function requiring a large amount of energy. "LCA is usually a disease where protein function has been lost completely, but carriers of just one copy of the mutation, who wi...

Researchers shed light on shrinking of chromosomes

...he extreme condensation of chromosomes towards the end of cell division can also serve as a safety net if something goes wrong with chromosome separation in earlier phases of division. When the researchers added chemicals to the cell to block the late condensation, more separation defects appeared. “So...

Study shows lizard moms dress their children for success

...and back pattern are not linked, so a lizard could end up with a mismatch that would leave it highly vulnerable to predators--wearing stripes and trying to hide in the grass, for example. Lancaster identified two pathways by which an extra dose of estradiol from the mother can help to resolve this proble...

Exploring the dark matter of the genome

...ly from telomere to telomere" -- that is, from one end of the chromosomes to the other -- including the centromere in the middle." Obtaining a more complete picture of the sequence of heterochromatin is clearly a crucial step toward a better understanding of genome functions. Karpen notes that one i...

Mutating the entire genome

...obably at least half of the ‘junk’ DNA is going to end up having a pretty important function,” Capecchi says. Capecchi is known for developing gene targeting, in which mice are bred with a gene disabled or “knocked out” to see what goes wrong, thus revealing the gene’s normal function and how disease...

Gene therapy study shows safety and statistically significant improvement in Parkinson's disease

...onths following surgery and continuing through the end of the study. These improvements occurred predominantly on the side of the body corresponding to the side of the brain receiving treatment. Moreover, the absence of change at the earliest time point following treatment suggests that the improvement w...

Ice Age extinction claimed highly carnivorous Alaskan wolves

The extinction of many large mammals at the end of the Ice Age may have packed an even bigger punch than scientists have realized. To the list of victims such as woolly mammoths and saber-toothed cats, a Smithsonian-led team of scientists has added one more: a highly carnivorous form of wolf that ...

Eavesdropping comes naturally to young song sparrows

...ngs of the other two tutors for four days. At the end of two months the young birds were isolated from hearing one another or the tutors. The second phase of the study began when the birds were about 8 months old. This time only two of the adult tutors were used. Each young bird was paired up with ...

Lessons from the orangutans: Upright walking may have begun in the trees

... researchers have envisioned. Somewhere toward the end of the Miocene epoch (24 to 5 million years ago), climate in East and Central Africa became alternately wetter and drier, and the rainforest grew increasingly patchy. Apes living in the forest canopy would have begun to encounter gaps between trees t...

A cherry on top: Tart cherries may alter heart/diabetes factors

...idant anthocyanins than sweet cherries. By the end of the study, the rats that received the 1-percent cherry diet had total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and insulin levels that were significantly lower than those of the rats that did not receive cherries. The same was true for those on the 10-p...

Survival of the rarest: Fruit flies shed light on the evolution of behavior

...nd assessed their fitness—how many survived to the end of their larval stage. To distinguish between the rovers and the sitters, which are physically identical, Fitzpatrick "tagged" one of the types with a green fluorescent protein that glows under ultraviolet light. Then, over the course of a year, Fitz...

Baumann Lab defines proteins that distinguish chromosome ends from DNA double-strand breaks

...rf2 complex is sufficient to impede non-homologous end joining in a highly directional manner." It has...e DNA repair machinery to distinguish a chromosome end from a break," said Dr. Baumann. "By establishing an in vitro assay for chromosome end protection an...

Study shows continued success for new HPV vaccine against virus responsible for cervical cancer

... girl's lifetime risk of cervical cancer. To that end Merck launched the national "One Less" campaign last year, which encourages females eligible for the vaccine to begin their vaccination series of three shots over six months and to continue seeing their doctor for regular checkups and screenings. ...

Confirmed -- deforestation plays critical climate change role

...rests continue to accumulate carbon through to the end of the century, although they may become less efficient at higher temperatures. "The new body of information shows considerable value in preserving tropical forests such as those in the Amazon and Indonesia as carbon sinks, that they do not releas...

DOE JGI sets 'gold standard' for metagenomic data analysis

...bling metagenomes," said Mavrommatis, "is that you end up with large fragments of unknown accuracy and a substantial number of sequences that fail to fit onto those larger fragments. On many occasions, this information is not taken into account, depriving the analysis of valuable information embedded in...

Researchers attach genes to minichromosomes in maize

...osome contains only centromeres and telomeres, the end section of a chromosome, with little else. However, minichromosomes have the ability to accept the addition of new genes in subsequent experiments. Birchler said there have been unsuccessful efforts to create artificial chromosomes in plants but t...

No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention

... first occurrence of prostate cancer, death or the end of the trial in 2001. At the beginning of the trial, the men gave a blood sample and completed a questionnaire related to their health, diet and lifestyle. The researchers focused on non-Hispanic Caucasian men, as the small number of cases among...

To sleep, perchance to dream: New insight into melatonin production

... (internal ribosome entry site) elements in the 5' end of the transcript, through binding of another protein, called hnRNP Q. In fact, siRNA knock-down of hnRNP Q reduced AANAT and melatonin production under nocturnal conditions. ...

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