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Tag: "encode" at biology news

New findings challenge established views on human genome

...significant insight into DNA sequences that do not encode proteins, which we knew very little about before,” said Ewan Birney, Ph.D., head of genome annotation at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory’s European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) in Hinxton, England, who led ENCODE’s massive data integratio...

Cytomegalovirus exacerbates atherosclerosis through an autoimmune mechanism

...ved in apoptosis but also of many other genes that encode for proteins involved in different aspects of the atherosclerotic process (lipid metabolism, inflammation, adhesion molecules, etc.). For the first time, the study shows that one of these proteins is very important because of its ability to activate ...

Discovery of 'master switch' for the communication process between chloroplast and nuclei of plants

... Dr. Chory’s lab. Many of the nuclear genes that encode chloroplast proteins are regulated by a "master switch" in response to environmental conditions. This "master switch," like a binary computer, can activate or de-activate certain sets of genes based on stress signaling processes. "One of our sugge...

Blood sugar's manufacture limited by building blocks' supply

...e mice had markedly reduced activity of genes that encode amino acid-degrading enzymes, the researchers showed. The mice also had a deficiency in the activity of an enzyme that converts the critical amino acid, called alanine, into pyruvate. Consistent with this observation, injection of pyruvate, but not a...

Major gene study uncovers secrets of leukemia

...differentiation, according to Downing. These genes encode proteins called transcription factors, which orchestrate the expression of a large number of other genes involved in B cell development. Together these genes coordinate the complex changes needed to induce progenitor cells to differentiate into B lym...

Loss of a universal tRNA feature reported

...ealed that a group of alphaproteobacteria fails to encode a G (guanylate) at the -1 position of the tRNA as all other bacteria do. Amplification and tRNA sequencing approaches were used to confirm the findings. Sinorhizobium meliloti and Caulobacter crescentus are members of the alphaproteobacteria, a gr...

Research finds music training 'tunes' human auditory system

...ooking to find ways to "train" the brain to better encode sound ?work that potentially has far-reaching educational and clinical implications. The study was supported by Northwestern University, grants from the National Institutes of Health and a grant from the National Science Foundation....

Reading hidden intentions in the human brain

...as been unclear whether patterns of activity might encode an individual's current intention. The observed goal-related activity might also (or, alternatively) represent other processes, such as preparing for a motor response, accessing memories of past related responses, or bearing in mind the choice of res...

Stability of mRNA/DNA and DNA/DNA duplexes modulates mRNA transcription

...at the same nucleotide sequence can simultaneously encode its respective protein and modulate its level of expression." says Stoynov. The mechanism of how DNA/DNA and mRNA/DNA duplex stability influences mRNA level remains unclear. The authors propose two models, but further work is needed to understand h...

Elucidation of the genome for diabetics with DNA chips

...CF7L2, HHEX, EXT2 and SLC30A8. TCF7L2 and HHEX encode transcription factors (molecules regulating the activity of other genes) controlling the Wnt signalling pathway essential for cell survival. Studies in animals have shown that the absence of these genes impairs pancreatic function. EXT2 encodes an...

Studies yield insight into the numerical brain

...supporting the idea that shared neural populations encode nonsymbolic quantities and symbolic stimuli." Piazza and colleagues also concluded that their findings shed light on how the brain learns to associate symbols with numbers. "Our results show that, at least in the adult brain, numerical symbols and ...

Virginia Tech's System X supercomputer provides super tool for simulation of cell division

...by disabling and/or over-expressing the genes that encode the proteins of the regulatory network. The model has 143 parameters that need to be estimated from the data. "That is a big problem," said Watson. "You can't do that by hand. You can't even do it on a laptop. It takes a supercomputer." In fact, i...

How does your brain tell time?

...a signature that enables the brain-cell network to encode time." The UCLA team used a computer model to...ge number of brain cells to determine whether they encode information about the timing of stimuli. ...

Genome info from 'plant destroyers' could save trees, beans and chocolate

...g rapid change. Many of the rapidly evolving genes encode toxins and other proteins that may debilitate plants. "We speculate that the rapidly changing genes are being driven to evolve by pressure from the defense systems of the pathogens' host plants," said Virginia Bioinformatics Institute's Brett Tyler,...

'Failed' experiment yields a biocontrol agent that doesn't trigger antibiotic resistance

...re common in bacteria. The genes in plasmids often encode information that confers some selective advantage to their hosts - such as the ability to resist antibiotics. Plasmids are useful tools for genetic engineering. It is relatively easy for a scientist to alter a plasmid's genetic makeup and then tran...

University of Iowa scientists explore function of 'junk DNA'

...II (Pol II), which mediates expression of RNA that encode proteins. The study is published in Nature Structural and Molecular Biology Advance Online Publication (AOP) on Nov. 12. "MicroRNAs are being shown to play roles in cancer and in normal development, so learning how these microRNAs are expressed ma...

Comparing chimp, human DNA

... of those regions contain genes that are likely to encode proteins. The most dramatically accelerated region, HAR1, appears to make a piece of RNA that may have a function in brain development. DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, carries the genetic instructions for making a chimp, a human, a tulip or an amoeba....

Special chip provides better picture of salmon health

...se genes, such as nutrition. We are now working to encode this information onto a chip which could help farmers monitor the health and performance of their stocks through methods such as changing their nutritional intake." So far the scientists have identified the genes and metabolic pathways which influ...

Fighting like a girl or boy determined by gene in fruit flies

...we go from the initial genes and the proteins they encode to the nervous system that causes our body to respond in certain ways." More generally, he said, such studies form a potential bridge between systems neuroscience studies of behavior and modern molecular neuroscience research into individual neurons ...

Caterpillars tell us how bacteria cause disease

...mune system while clones which contain genes which encode for virulence factors survive immune attack. "This work has several fruitful outcomes," according to Dr Waterfield. "Not only does using this approach reveal 'cryptic' virulence genes, which ordinarily might be masked by more potent factors (when ...

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