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Tag: "elicits" at biology news

Cocaine high caused by interference in neuronal receiving stations

...ctivity and intensive sniffing and biting the drug elicits in the animals. They found that drugs that either activated the D2R subunit or inactivated the NR2B subunit tended to enhance such behavioral responses to cocaine. "These results provide strong evidence supporting a critical role of the D2R-NR2B in...

Circadian gene helps the brain predict mealtime

...n terms of animal behavior, a daily scheduled meal elicits anticipatory bouts of locomotor activity and changes in body temperature. These food-anticipatory behaviors are believed to be under the control of a food-entrainable mechanism--that is, a timing mechanism within the body that is set by food intake--...

Free radical cell death switch identified

...a gap in our understanding of how oxidative stress elicits biological responses in neurons, and may include besides cell death, neuronal dysfunction and neuronal recovery. Since oxidative stress in neurons and other cells in the body contribute to tissue damage in a variety of disorders, including stroke, i...

Potato blight pathogenicity explained by genome plasticity

...oes not code for an effector ?a small protein that elicits a defense response in plants," adds Govers. "Effectors are quite common in fungal and bacterial plant pathogens, including Phytophthora . But in our case, the gene appears to produce a large regulatory protein that exerts its effect by regulating ...

Radiation-killed bacteria vaccine induces broad immune response in mice

...ated bacteria can form the basis of a vaccine that elicits a strong response from both arms of the adaptive immune system, Dr. Raz and his colleagues have opened the possibility of making a variety of bacterial vaccines that combine the best features of both killed-agent and live, attenuated vaccines," says ...

Researchers add crucial information on how the body's T cells react to parasitic diseases

...e, Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas Disease, elicits a T cell response focused on a few peptides, despite having some 12,000 genes capable of generating hundreds of thousands of potential targets for T cells." The study was just published in the online journal PLOS Pathogens, a peer-reviewed, open-ac...

Plant-derived vaccines safeguard against deadly plague

...o combat the deadliest form of plague. The vaccine elicits a protective immune response in guinea pigs. The results are considered to be a milestone in the future development of a new vaccine for human use. Plague, caused by a rod-shaped bacterium called Yersinia pestis, no longer invokes the "black death" ...

Sweet 'water taste' paradoxically predicts sweet taste inhibitors

...nds, the researchers found that any sweetener that elicits sweet 'water taste' also acts as a sweet taste inhibitor. To understand how sweet 'water taste' compounds could act both as a sweetener and as a sweet inhibitor, collaborators Marcel Winnig, Bernd Bufe, and Wolfgang Meyerhof of the German Institut...

Worms know bad food when they smell it

...eat food with that flavor in the future. The smell elicits an instant wave of nausea." That aversion is triggered by signals that the olfactory system sends to the brain. Similar forms of learning have been observed in a broad range of animals, including invertebrates such as snails and fish. "We don't know ...

Olfactory system detects pheromones that control reproduction

...ated by exposure to female urine -- which normally elicits sexual behavior -- than exposure to water.Future studies will aim at further characterizing the network of connections from the olfactory system to LHRH neurons in many brain structures, said Dulac. Also, the researchers plan to explore how olfactory...

LIAI scientists make major finding on potential smallpox treatment

...or target of neutralizing antibodies in humans and elicits protection against lethal challenge in mice" that ...tein in the smallpox virus ?the H3 protein -- that elicits a particularly strong human antibody response. "Out of the 200 or so proteins contained in the small...

Weight control protein may yield antiobesity drugs

...bout the body's fat content. That signal, in turn, elicits adjustments in appetite and energy expenditure to maintain normal body weight. Mice lacking SH2-B overeat and become obese, the team found. The animals additionally develop a metabolic syndrome characterized by high blood concentrations of leptin, i...

Fragment of yellow fever virus may hold key to safer vaccine

... specific region on one of the viral proteins that elicits an immune response. Antibodies produced by the immune system interact with this part of the protein, known as a neutralizing epitope, to fight off infection. To protect people from the disease, yellow fever vaccines must contain this essential fragme...

New insights into how Huntington's disease attacks the brain

...first strong evidence that the mutant protein also elicits toxic interactions from neighboring cells to provoke the fatal brain disorder. The May 5 edition of Neuron reports the findings. "This is really important because most current disease models and drug development efforts rely on the assumption that H...

Second messenger NAADP shows fast, dose-related impact on satiety cycle

...des the first direct evidence that cholecystokinin elicits a rapid, dose-dependent and selective increase in NAADP, and thus unequivocal evidence that NAADP is a crucial messenger employed by cholecystokinin." Yamasaki noted that NAADP has "a short history compared to other traditional intracellular messeng...

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