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Tag: "duplication" at biology news

Exploring the dark matter of the genome

...eres play a crucial role in controlling chromosome duplication during cell division. Telomeres are a chromosome's end-caps; they help prevent the accumulation of genomic damage. Both heterochromatin and euchromatin are sequenced using a method called whole-genome shotgun sequencing. Celniker says, "We grind ...

First confirmed common genetic risk factors for breast cancer

...A recipes for proteins important to the growth and duplication of body cells and the signalling, or communications, that must occur between cells in order for the body to function normally. Previous investigations have identified about a dozen genetic mutations associated with breast cancer susceptibility. N...

Scientists identify a gene that may suppress colorectal cancer

...ets for therapy. The research team identified a duplication of DNA—only four bases in length—in a critical part of the Atp5a1 gene. This mutation, which results in decreased levels of Atp5a1 gene expression, is the first mutation identified in the mouse Atp5a1 gene. In trypanosomes (tiny parasitic pro...

How fish conquered the ocean

...on to the "Three round hypothesis" of whole genome duplication among vertebrates, and the functional end points o...ins have undergone a post-R3 lineage-specific gene duplication to form paralogous clusters that correlate to the pelagic and benthic character of the eggs. The alt...

New clues to how sex evolves

..., all very rapidly evolving," says Dernburg. "Gene duplication is common throughout the genome in all species, bu...they all arose from a common ancestor through gene duplication and subsequent selection. This inspired Dernburg and Phillips to look at similar genes in the relate...

Evolution and the workaround

... yeast strains for future explanations of how the duplication of genetic information contributes to the robustness and adaptability of all living things. ...

Mayo discovers protein as potential tactic to prevent tumors

...ividing cells is essential because mistakes during duplication of the genetic code can lead to cancer," says Donald Tindall, Ph.D., co-leader of the Mayo Clinic Cancer Center prostate cancer research program. "CDK2 is a key protein component in the cellular mechanism that leads to repair of damaged DNA." If c...

Evolution reveals an independent route for diversity in animal form

... in cnidarians, most of these have evolved by gene duplication independently since cnidarians diverged from the higher animal lineage. The researchers found no equivalent of a Hox cluster in two representative cnidarians, and the patterns of expression of the cnidarian Hox-like genes differ radically across the ...

Massive duplication of genes may solve Darwin's 'abominable mystery' about flowering plants

...n "paleopolyploidy" event, an ancient whole-genome duplication that preceded the appearance of the ancestral flow...n of duplicated genes that suggests a whole-genome duplication event in the earliest flowering plants," he says. "A polyploidy event early in the history of flowe...

No cell walls, no new cancer cells

...or cancer control. "New cells are created by the duplication of existing cells through a highly-organized process known as the cell cycle," explains lead author, Dr. Maite Bengoechea Alonso. "Last year we discovered that a protein called SREBP1 that regulates the synthesis of lipids needed for new cell walls w...

Parallel evolution: Proteins do it, too

...n previous research in which Zhang showed that the duplication of a gene encoding a pancreatic enzyme helped Asia...acteria. Zhang's initial analysis showed that the duplication occurred about four million years ago, some nine million years after the two main groups of colobine...

U of M researchers discover genetic key to treating deadly fungal infections

... is known as an "isochromosome." The effect of the duplication is to help the cell tolerate the antifungal drug, thus allowing the yeast to continue growing despite the presence of the drug. The discovery, which is reported in the July 21 issue of Science, could lead to strategies for making currently availa...

Convergent evolution of molecules in electric fish

...lly one of the first cases that the ancestral gene duplication in fish has actually been linked to a gene that has been freed up and evolving in accordance with a 'new lifestyle.'" Zakon and colleagues looked at two sodium channel genes in the electric organs and muscles in electric and non-electric fish. Elec...

Behavioral studies show UV contributes to marsupial color vision

...es that have re-evolved a third cone type from the duplication of the MWS/LWS gene, which enables the discrimination of green-red colors. But the researchers' previous physiological studies in Australian marsupials provided original evidence for the potential of trichromatic color vision in mammals other than pr...

Cholesterol gets 'thumbs up' for role in digit development

...digits 2 through 5 (index through pinkie), but had duplication of these digits anteriorly. The findings suggested that Sonic hedgehog without cholesterol traveled further than normal, triggering the anomalous digit duplications. Chiang and colleagues confirmed this microscopically, showing that the protein s...

Sleeping sickness parasite shows how cells divide their insides

...ure, distinct from the basal body, involved in the duplication of the Golgi apparatus and defined by a highly-conserved protein, Centrin2. This structure has two lobes -- one at the old Golgi, the other where the new Golgi forms. Once a new Golgi has grown, the Centrin structure itself duplicates so that two com...

Fitting in: Newly evolved genes adopt a variety of strategies to remain in the gene pool

...el for investigating the functional basis for gene duplication because a large proportion of genes involved in th...sidered to be duplicates. An ancient whole-genome duplication event is thought to be responsible for the formation of many of these duplicate copies. Sauer's gro...

Analysis of flower genes reveals the fate of an ancient gene duplication

...ight into the present-day outcome of a single gene duplication that occurred over a hundred million years ago in ... original gene can remain intact. In this way, the duplication of pre-existing genetic information provides the raw material from which new gene functions can evol...

Public collections of DNA and RNA sequence reach 100 gigabases

...atabases, allocated journals to each team to avoid duplication of effort, and began the arduous task of mapping the fields from one database onto those of the other so that they could exchange information. By the time the International Nucleotide Sequence Consortium became formalized in February 1987, a third pa...

'Punctuated' evolution in the human genome

...may have been particularly permissive to segmental duplication events. The scientists speculate that the molecular driving forces behind this "punctuated" duplicative activity may have been changes in transcriptional status or chromatin conformation. "Other regions may show different temporal biases," explains ...

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