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Tag: "duplicated" at biology news

Study Demonstrates Gene Expression Microarrays are Comparable and Reproducible

...te labs was only slightly lower thancorrelation of duplicated experiments within the same labs. “Thisstudy is a key first step in moving gene expression data fromsmall-scale bench science into large-scale clinical evaluation,?saidJames Jacobson, Ph.D., chief of NCI’s Diagnostic Biomarkers andTechnology Branch....

Scientists document complex genomic events leading to the birth of new genes

...n the study. The key to this, however, is that the duplicated copies of genes very quickly evolve functions that...onal pseudogenes. This is because fully functional duplicated genes, in combination with the corresponding parent gene, produce abnormally abundant quantities of ...

NC State scientist finds soft tissue in T. rex bones

...ne cells from the ostrich sample. Schweitzer then duplicated her findings with at least three other well-preserved dinosaur specimens, one 80-million-year-old hadrosaur and two 65-million-year-old tyrannosaurs. All of these specimens preserved vessels, cell-like structures, or flexible matrix that resembled bo...

Marine sponge yields nanoscale secrets

...markable because this nanoscale precision can't be duplicated by man." Besides this remarkable precision, nature manages to produce silica at a low temperature, in an environmentally friendly way without the use of caustic chemicals, whereas man must use very high temperatures, high vacuums, and dangerous chem...

Big differences in duplicated DNA distinguish chimp and human genomes

... atrophy and Prader-Willi syndrome. Parts of those duplicated segments have only single copies in the chimp geno...pecies split off from each other, that segment was duplicated many times in the human genome over millions of years. Most of the remaining one-third of duplicatio...

Deep thinking: Scientists sequence a cold-loving marine microbe

...ezing point. The genome also possesses a number of duplicated genes important to cell membrane biosynthesis. What's more, C. psychrerythraea dresses in layers, generating plenty of extracellular polysaccharides (sugars) that coat cell membranes. Aside from its cellular outerwear, C. psychrerythraea generates a...

'Punctuated' evolution in the human genome

... the human genome have been hotspots for acquiring duplicated DNA sequences ?but only at specific time-points du...c stasis, at least with regard to the accretion of duplicated DNA fragments, are "punctuated" by relatively brief episodes of duplicative activity. This is the fi...

Rutgers researchers scientifically link dancing ability to mate quality

...be how they created computer-animated figures that duplicated the movements of 183 Jamaican teenagers dancing to popular music. The researchers then asked peers of the dancers to evaluate the dancing ability of these animated figures. The figures were gender-neutral, faceless and the same size ?all to keep eval...

Fitting in: Newly evolved genes adopt a variety of strategies to remain in the gene pool

The largest-ever experimental analysis of duplicated genes provides insight into mechanisms of evolutio...ntical copy of a gene in an organism's genome, the duplicated copy is usually deleted, inactivated, or otherwise rendered nonfunctional in order to prevent geneti...

Brainstem blocks pain to protect key behaviors

...FF cells were excited during feeding, results that duplicated the effects of morphine. The changes occurred only during selected portions of eating, while the animal was both holding and chewing the food. A similar response took place when the animals drank water or urinated. This response "protects critical...

NHGRI announces new sequencing targets

...es where larger segments of DNA have been deleted, duplicated or rearranged ?all of which can cause disease by disrupting the structure and function of genes. A recent analysis has shown that these large-scale structural variations are much more common than previously appreciated. In fact, the genomes of any ...

Insects that produce males from unfertilized eggs reveal a surprising cellular feat

... called the mitotic spindle, which pulls apart the duplicated chromosomes so that each of the two daughter cells gets a complete set of chromosomes. The centrosome contains about a hundred different proteins, including the main protein for making microtubules, called gamma tubulin. The UCSC researchers studie...

Researchers now able to look deep into heart to view triggers of a heart's beat

... called the mitotic spindle, which pulls apart the duplicated chromosomes so that each of the two daughter cells gets a complete set of chromosomes. The centrosome contains about a hundred different proteins, including the main protein for making microtubules, called gamma tubulin. The UCSC researchers studie...

Scientists discover new genetic subtypes of common blood cancer

...ots on the chromosomes where genes were abnormally duplicated or lost across many different tumors. The CGH analysis netted a large number of areas showing such alterations in the myeloma cells from patients. Then the scientists asked whether any specific pattern or combination of these aberrations in an indiv...

Evolutionary scrap-heap challenge: Antifreeze fish make sense out of junk DNA

... a short repetitive sequence that only needs to be duplicated four times to give a fully functioning protein". ...

Toxic molecule may cause most common type of muscular dystrophy

...team led by Dr. Mani Mahadevan, a UVa pathologist, duplicated the disease in mice. "We showed in our mouse model that when you make this poisonous RNA the mice get various aspects of myotonic dystrophy," Mahadevan said. "Then, when you take away the toxic RNA, the mice get back to normal." Mahadevan hopes the...

'Signature' of chromosome instability predicts cancer outcomes

...e chromosomes to break and bits of DNA to be lost, duplicated or reshuffled to the wrong chromosomes. Cells have repair mechanisms that constantly fix this damage, but when the repair process breaks down, chromosomes become unstable and cancers are more likely to develop. Chromosomal instability leads to a ...

NHGRI announces latest sequencing targets

...known to be associated with mutations in segmental duplicated regions, including a form of mental retardation and other neurological and birth defects. Segmental duplications cover 5.3 percent of the human genome, significantly more than in the rat genome, which has about 3 percent, or the mouse g...

Scientists reverse evolution

...pproach to gene therapy, Tvrdik says. If a gene duplicated into two and they evolved separate functions in the body ?for example, one gene works in the liver and the other in the brain ?then "if the brain version of the gene becomes mutated or deleted [to cause a disease] and its gene replacement is difficul...

Parallel evolution: Proteins do it, too

... in the enzyme. Just as in the Asian colobine, the duplicated genes in African colobines functioned more efficiently at the typical acidity level of the colobine small intestine, he found. "Then our question was whether the similar functional changes were due to identical amino acid changes at the protein sequ...

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