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Tag: "duplicate" at biology news

Mutating the entire genome

...sts report: They found a way to delete or duplicate moderately long to very long pieces of DNA and make those mutations happen much more frequently than other methods can. That makes it easier to find out what defects or diseases arise due to such mutations, and thus what the DNA does normally. ...

Synthetic peptide targets latent papilloma virus infections

...ehind, and are copied and delivered along with the duplicate chromosomes into the daughter cells, where they again take up residence in the nucleus as latent viral DNA. The viral plasmids turn into infectious viruses only in the top, differentiated layers of tissue. Previous work showed that the bovine papil...

Cancer-killing invention also harvests stem cells

...nd tissue injuries. King set out to find a way to duplicate this natural process. First, he noted that the selectins form bonds with the white blood cells within fractions of a second, then immediately release the cells back into the bloodstream. He also realized that selectin is the adhesive mechanism b...

Lab-on-a-chip could speed up treatment of drug-resistant pneumonia

...re still reproducing -- and the rate at which they duplicate helps to identify their species. In the next step, different antibiotics are pumped into the chambers. If the cells in a chamber stop reproducing, that indicates that a certain drug is likely to be effective at fighting the infection. The death of...

Human stem cells delay start of Lou Gehrig's disease in rats

...human stem cells into spinal cords of rats bred to duplicate Lou Gehrig's disease delays the start of nerve cell damage typical of the disease and slightly prolongs life. The grafted stem cells develop into nerve cells that make substantial connections with existing nerves and do not themselves succumb to Lou ...

Getting to the heart of the heart

...y differentiated tissue, you have the potential to duplicate that process in the lab and make a tissue that a patient might need," says John Mayer, MD, a cardiovascular surgeon at Children's who is developing tissue-engineering techniques to create biological replacements for failing heart valves. Felix Engel...

Massive duplication of genes may solve Darwin's 'abominable mystery' about flowering plants

...e duplication are few and far between: most of the duplicate genes are quickly lost, leaving few obvious traces...in over a century ago. While the vast majority of duplicate genes quickly accumulate mutations and are deleted from the genome, a few mutations will be selected...

Parallel evolution: Proteins do it, too

...e from Asia, has two---one encodes RNASE1, and its duplicate encodes a new enzyme, RNASE1B. The duplicate enzyme, it turns out, works better than the original in the acidic conditions of the colobine small ...

Scientists reverse evolution

...gene had split into four, so 13 became 52. Later, duplicate Hox genes either mutated in a way that proved useful, or vanished because they were redundant, so today in humans and other mammals there are 39 instead of 52 Hox genes. The study focused on two modern Hox genes: -- The Hoxa1 gene, which helps...

Ready, set, mutate?and may the best microbe win

...st produced precisely the same mutant genes. "The duplicate study suggests that the pathways of molecular adaptation are reproducible and not highly variable under identical conditions," Shamoo said. ...

U of M researchers discover genetic key to treating deadly fungal infections

...ome 5 and deletes the other, replacing it with the duplicate arm. The altered chromosome is known as an "isochromosome." The effect of the duplication is to help the cell tolerate the antifungal drug, thus allowing the yeast to continue growing despite the presence of the drug. The discovery, which is repo...

Mutation in blood stem cells provides clues to cancer development

..., survival and proliferation, are affected ?and to duplicate this in-vitro research in mouse models. Working with specific inhibitors developed by local pharmaceutical companies, the UCSD and Stanford researchers plan to conduct clinical trials in the near future and are working with colleagues at Harvard Uni...

Secrets of the sea yield stronger artificial bone

...ysters and abalone. Scientists have long sought to duplicate nacre's strength and lightness in ceramic materials, but nacre's architecture varies at several length scales, from micrometers to nanometers. Replicating all of these scales -- each of which contributes to the overall performance of nacre -- in a sy...

Convergent evolution of molecules in electric fish

...s of many of their genes, and Zakon found that the duplicate sodium channel gene could mutate and evolve without harming the fish. "The spare gene gave [the electric fish] a little bit of evolutionary leeway," says Zakon, professor of neurobiology. "This is really one of the first cases that the ancestral ...

Rewind, please: Nature paper shows that cell division is reversible

... process, interrupt and reverse the event, sending duplicate chromosomes back to the center of the original cell, an event once thought impossible. "Our studies indicate that the factors pointing cells toward division can be turned and even reversed," Gorbsky said. "If we wait too long, however, it doesn't wo...

U-M researchers take new approach to defeating Gram-negative bugs

...tion therapies, which include compounds that could duplicate the effect caused by the genetic mutation of bacteria together with low-dose antibiotics. "Bugs are very smart," Woodard said. "It's not a matter of if a bug will become antibiotic resistant, but when. We have to work hard to get ahead of them." ...

Fitting in: Newly evolved genes adopt a variety of strategies to remain in the gene pool

...ional and experimental approaches, they classified duplicate pairs of genes involved in yeast metabolism into four functional categories: (1) back-up, where a duplicate gene copy has acquired the ability to compensate in the absence of the other copy, (2) subfunctional...

Double trouble: Cells with duplicate genomes can trigger tumors

...mes, the "double value" or "tetraploid" cells also duplicate a cell structure called the centrosome that plays a role in maintaining a stable genome. The extra centrosomes may be at the root of the cancer-triggering process. Once the genetic instability sets in, tumors "evolve " by losing, gaining and rearrang...

New technique helps identify multiple DNA regulatory sites

...of DNA essentially self-assemble upon a surface to duplicate a nano-scale pattern made of their complementary DNA strands. The duplicates are identical to the master and can thus be used as masters themselves. This increases print output exponentially while enabling the reproduction of very complex nano-scale ...

New technique may speed DNA analysis

...of DNA essentially self-assemble upon a surface to duplicate a nano-scale pattern made of their complementary DNA strands. The duplicates are identical to the master and can thus be used as masters themselves. This increases print output exponentially while enabling the reproduction of very complex nano-scale ...

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