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Tag: "downstream" at biology news

New findings challenge established views on human genome

...ory sequences are just as likely to be located downstream of a transcription start site on a DNA strand as upstream. Identification of specific signatures of change in histones, which are the proteins that organize DNA, and correlation of these signatures with different genomic functions. Deeper underst...

New research shows sharks use their noses and bodies to locate smells

...rom sources of major turbulence by placing a brick downstream from each oozing source to create two turbulent wakes with one or the other flavored with food odor. This produced four separate smell targets for the sharks to locate. "In addition, we also tested the sharks under two light conditions – fluoresc...

Scientists identify prion's infectious secret

...tion element is activated, in turn influencing the downstream behavior of the prion. "These findings are remarkable for two reasons," says Lindquist, who is also an investigator for Howard Hughes Medical Institute. "For one thing, this is the first time that these peptide arrays have been used to study prote...

Discovery of 'master switch' for the communication process between chloroplast and nuclei of plants

...e researchers to design what the targets should be downstream from these pathways." Work for the project was supported by a grant from the Department of Energy, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, EMBO long term and Howard Hughes Medical Institute fellowships....

2 brains -- 1 thought

...ither an inhibiting or an activating effect on the downstream neuron and, in addition to this, can differ in its intensity and reaction time. The entirety of all possible networks of a defined dynamics resembles a complex figure in a multidimensional space. Here, every point on the surface specifies the data re...

In obesity, brain becomes 'unaware' of fat

...tin pathway remained ready for action. Indeed, the downstream factors were actually found to be hypersensitive to stimulation. “Previous studies have suggested that SOCS-3 is a negative regulator of leptin,?Cowley said. “As animals become bigger and fatter and leptin increases, SOCS-3 may rise to decrease th...

Single molecule extends fat mice lives by reversing gene pathways associated with disease in obese

...trong tendency for AMPK activation, as well as two downstream indicators of its activity. Calorie restriction and exercise have also been previously shown to increase the number of mitochondria in the liver. Mitochondria generate energy in cells. Through electron microscopy, investigators showed that the l...

U of M researchers invent 'flashy' new process to turn soy oil, glucose into hydrogen

...ous, the syngas passes through it and is collected downstream in the tube. No external heat is needed, because the chemical reactions that produce syngas release enough heat to break up subsequent molecules of oil or sugar. "The secret is ultrafast flash volatilization [vaporization]," said Schmidt. "It happe...

Study uncovers mutation responsible for Noonan Syndrome

... they promoted excessive activation of RAS and its downstream target, MAP kinase, the same pathway activated by PTPN11 mutations. "These results are the first example of activating mutations in an exchange factor in human disease," notes Neel, explaining that for families at risk for Noonan syndrome, the fin...

Embryonic patterning makes the feathers fly

...ion was laid down by FGF. Speculation pointed to a downstream cellular signaling pathway but which one (and if i...ken skin model and targeted a variety of potential downstream signaling pathways with specific inhibitors. They got their biggest hits with the so-called mitogen-...

U of S Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization team discovers key step in flu virus replication

...f swine, horses and birds to see how they activate downstream cellular signalling pathways. To do this, they are using reverse genetics technology, where researchers begin with a gene and figure out its function. These studies will allow the team to identify the genes that enable the virus to cause disease, ...

Scientists solve 30-year-old mystery of mutant mouse's kidney woes

...d urine is then passed on to the bladder and other downstream parts of the urinary system." When scientists us...in up to 30 times more urine being dumped into the downstream pipes. "Eventually, you overwhelm the plumbing system, and it gets backed up to an upstream locati...

Ozone recovering, but unlikely to stabilize at pre-1980 levels, says study

... says Chory. "This study clarifies what's going on downstream in the nucleus when brassinolide signals a plant cell to grow." Brassinolide, a member of a family of plant hormones known as brassinosteroids, is a key element of plants' response to light, enabling them to adjust growth to reach light or strengthe...

Salk scientists untangle steroid hormone signaling in plants

... says Chory. "This study clarifies what's going on downstream in the nucleus when brassinolide signals a plant cell to grow." Brassinolide, a member of a family of plant hormones known as brassinosteroids, is a key element of plants' response to light, enabling them to adjust growth to reach light or strengthe...

The secret lives of sea slugs

...rrents that hurl them (un-sluggishly) end over end downstream and away from harm, as well as crawling aggressively (for slugs) upstream to breed and feed. The observations also correlated with earlier studies suggesting that sea slugs flatten out their bodies to reduce drag when they encounter strong water curr...

Beaver dams create healthy downstream ecosystems

...ave found that ponds created by beaver dams raised downstream groundwater levels in the Colorado River valley, k...ountain National Park, examining valley ecosystems downstream in the Colorado River. They noted that water diverted by beaver dams is forced out of the natural st...

miRNA-mediated silencing of mRNAs

... decay. The authors establish that GW182 functions downstream of the Argonaute-1 protein in the miRNA pathway, targeting transcripts for decay via a deadenylation and decapping reaction. The question of whether miRNAs silence gene expression without affecting mRNA levels has been controversial, and conflicting...

C-myc required by the immune system

...which is known primarily as an oncogene, that acts downstream of the IL-15 signaling pathway to regulate T memory cell homeostasis." According to Dr. MacDonald, the study is basic research that may have implications for therapies of the future. "Understanding how immune memory works might allow us to improve t...

Unique dual target specificity of kinase inhibitor key for success against cancer

...inhibit both the p110á subunit of PI3 kinase and a downstream molecule called mTOR that also plays a critical role in cell growth. Although both of these molecules are members of the same signaling cascade, the researchers found that they must be concurrently inhibited because of a regulatory feedback loop that...

Pathway toward gene silencing described in plants

...ected, but the function of all the other proteins downstream is lost, inferring that it came into the act second. The picture that emerged from this logical approach is that Pol IVa gets things started, churning out RNA that then goes to the nucleolus where it is acted on by RDR2, which turns the single-strand...

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