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Tag: "dopamine" at biology news

Researchers identify protein pathway involved in Parkinson disease development

...the brain that produce dopamine. This lowering of dopamine leads to decreased stimulation of the brain's motor cortex. Although scientists have not known the exact cause of the loss of these dopamine-producing neurons, they believe it is related to dysfunctional mitochondria and oxidative stress. Mitochondr...

'Personality-gene' makes songbirds curious

...er dopamine. Birds with a specific variant of this dopamine receptor D4 gene show a stronger exploratory behaviour than individuals with other variants (Proceedings of the Royal Society London B, 2 May 2007). There is already evidence that variations (polymorphisms) in neurotransmitter-related genes are as...

Implanting dopamine generators in brain cells obtains improvement in Parkinson's in monkeys

Implanting dopamine generators (dopaminergics) in brain cells has prod...ration and the cardiac frequency through releasing dopamine in situations of low oxygen level in the blood. After the implantation of the cellular aggregates of...

Enhancing activity of marijuana-like chemicals in brain helps treat

...um relies on the chemical dopamine. A shortage of dopamine in the striatum can lead to Parkinson's disease, ...odulate these two circuits in opposite ways. When dopamine is depleted, it is thought that the pathway responsible for inhibiting movement becomes overly acti...

Prenatal cocaine's lasting cellular effects

...e in rabbits causes a long lasting displacement of dopamine receptors in certain brain cells, which alters the...ocaine exposure had altered the development of the dopamine pathways in the brain. "In collaboration with Dr. Eitan Friedman of the City University of New Yo...

NIH announces phase III clinical trial of creatine for Parkinson's disease

...evodopa or other drugs that increase the levels of dopamine in the brain. Many of the symptoms of PD result from the loss of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that helps to control movement. Half of the participants will receive creatine and half will receive a placebo. Neither the participants nor their doctor...

Morphine makes lasting -- and surprising -- change in the brain

...r found, were those between inhibitory neurons and dopamine neurons. In a healthy brain, inhibitory cells woul...s of abuse, from alcohol to cocaine, also increase dopamine release. So the net effect of morphine and other opioids, Kauer found, is that they boost the bra...

New dopamine brain target discovered

...on and Mental health (CAMH), discovered a distinct dopamine signalling complex in the brain. Composed of two different types of dopamine receptors, this novel target may have a significant role in understanding and treating schizophrenia...

The influence of the menstrual cycle on the female brain

...s self-administer cocaine (a drug that acts on the dopamine system) in higher doses after estrogens have been ...on activity in the brain. Dopaminergic neurons use dopamine as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator. 2. Structures including the ventral striatum, the anterior c...

Dopamine used to prompt nerve tissue to regrow

...the biological activity. They also determined that dopamine was more effective at differentiating nerve cells ...laminin. This ability means that the material with dopamine may have a better chance to successfully repair damaged nerves. The success of dopamine has encou...

New brain-chemistry differences found in depressed women

...rmone system, and those involved in noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin production. "Further research on these differences, and their relationship to patients' responses to various depression treatments, is crucial to the continued improvement in the understanding of depression and the development of be...

Transplanted brain cells hold promise for Parkinson's disease

...ays. The standard treatment is L-dopa, a synthetic dopamine that tends to minimize symptoms for three to five years. As the disease progresses and the drug becomes less effective, doses are increased and can produce more dyskinesia, loss of controlled movement. Centers such as MCG are exploring new ways to sl...

New research identifies gene important for nicotine's effects on the brain

...t receives nicotine and, therefore, focused on the dopamine system in the brain. Dopamine is one of a number ...tion and reward processes. Nicotine activates the dopamine system in the brain as do other drugs of abuse including cocaine and amphetamines. "Our work and...

Researchers identify neurons that assign value during learning

...o neutral stimuli--for example, neurons expressing dopamine are required for aversive learning, whereas neurons expressing another neurotransmitter, octopamine, are required for appetitive learning (association of a stimulus with a reward). However, it was unclear whether a common set of neurons were responsi...

Cocaine high caused by interference in neuronal receiving stations

...a component of a receptor for the neurotransmitter dopamine tends to grab onto a component of a receptor for g...searchers had long known that cocaine affects both dopamine and glutamate receptors on neurons, but the molecular details of those effects were unknown. In thei...

Hormone linked to brain's cravings for food and other energy sources

...uld signal directly in the VTA region and activate dopamine neuronal activity, which controls reward-associated behavior to promote interest in food as a reward. As a default, ghrelin's action may also alter seeking of drugs and substances that work through the same pathways. "We found that if we selective...

Pleasure and pain: Study shows brain's 'pleasure chemical' is involved in response to pain too

For years, the brain chemical dopamine has been thought of as the brain's "pleasure chemi...muscle pain, the researchers show that the brain's dopamine system is highly active while someone experiences pain ?and that this response varies between indivi...

Research links 'ecstasy' to survival of key movement-related cells in brain

...g "ecstasy," or MDMA, can increase the survival of dopamine cells in the brain during fetal development. Be...But finding new methods to enhance the survival of dopamine neurons is critical in developing new drugs for diseases such as Parkinson's. "While MDMA itself ...

High dopamine transporter levels not correlated with ADHD

...ble online, also found that for any given level of dopamine transporters in the brain, ADHD patients experienc...ith control subjects. "These results suggest that dopamine transporter levels alone cannot account for the severity of symptoms of inattention in ADHD," said N...

Leptin has powerful effect on reward center in the brain

... leptin signaling, via its receptor, occurs in the dopamine neurons in the VTA and that it results in decrease...ivity of these neurons. "Metabolic control over dopamine neuron function in the VTA is likely to have consequences for a broad range of behaviors and associa...

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