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Tag: "distinguishes" at biology news

Why doesn't the immune system attack the small intestine?

...tem assault on healthy tissue. The immune system distinguishes between normal and foreign agents by small proteins, called antigens, on the cell surface. In parts of the body, such as the pancreas, that are sheltered from the outside environment, cells known as dendritic cells display the antigens of their norma...

How to manage forests in hurricane impact zones

... researchers constructed an adaptive strategy that distinguishes event risk (hurricane occurrence) from the vulnerability of coastal forests and outcome risk (hurricane severity). "There really isn’t any way for managers to reduce the risk of a hurricane occurring or the severity of a hurricane when it hits," s...

Mirrors in the mind: New studies elucidate how the brain reflects onto itself the actions of others

...action, are linked in the brain, and how the brain distinguishes actions perpetrated by "self" and by "other." The studies are reported by three independent research groups: Lisa Aziz-Zadeh (now at USC) and colleagues at the University of Parma, Italy, UCLA; Christian Keysers and colleagues at the University of Gr...

Brain's 'gambling circuitry' identified

...magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of their brains, distinguishes the "gambling" structures in the brain. Importantly, their findings tease apart the gambling function of these brain structures from their functions in learning, motivation, and assessment of the salience of a stimulus. In their research article pu...

The structure of a virus infecting bacteria resembles a human virus

...t cell. However, it is still unclear how the virus distinguishes itsâ?super>TM own genetic information from that of other corresponding cellular molecules. Studying these events with the bacteriophage will help the understanding of similar events in human viruses. The similarity of double-stranded RNA viruse...

High-resolution light microscope reveals the fundamental mechanisms of nerve communication

...f active synaptic zones. STED microscopy radically distinguishes itself from conventional farfield light microscopy in the fact that its resolution is no longer fundamentally limited by the wavelength of light used. Using STED, nanoscale optical studies are now possible inside cells. Since its discovery in the 17...

Lizard 'third eye' sheds light on evolution of color vision

...ched" lizard's so-called third, or parietal, eye, distinguishes two different colors, blue and green, possibly to tell the time of day. Specialized nerve cells in that eye, which looks more like a spot on the lizard's forehead, use two types of molecular signals to sense light: those found only in simpler animals...

How nerve cells stay in shape

...comprise a special set of molecules, which clearly distinguishes them from the rest of the cell. Furthermore, these contact sites can change structure and characteristics with incoming signals. In dendrites, these changes can only happen when certain proteins are produced at the synapse. A prerequisite for protein...

Embryos tell story of Earth's earliest animals

...hether this can happen can be put to rest." What distinguishes animals from other organisms is the ability to ingest other organisms, either by consuming them as food, as humans do, or by digesting food externally and sucking up the aftermath, in the manner of starfish. ...

Health of Acehnese reefs in the wake of the tsunami shows human impacts more harmful

...rowing in unconsolidated substrata, a feature that distinguishes tsunami damage from that of tropical storms, which typically have a greater affect on delicate corals in shallow waters. The team also found that reef condition varied widely within the region and was clearly correlated with human activities prior t...

Marathon of nano-sprinters

...s been derived from a new theoretical model, which distinguishes the different bound states of the cargo particle and describes the transitions between these states. Using this model, the Max Planck scientists have been able to calculate several transport properties, such as the average velocity and the average wa...

Human brain is still evolving

...hat the human brain, the most important organ that distinguishes our species, is evolutionarily plastic," he said. Finding evidence of selection in two such genes is mutually reinforcing, he pointed out. "Finding this effect in one gene could be anecdotal, but finding it in two genes would make it a trend. Here we...

Nose odors and mouth odors: The brain distinguishes

...rnesol--to test a theory that the olfactory system distinguishes molecules according to whether they are more water soluble (butanol) or oily (farnesol). The researchers found that the chocolate odor, indeed, activated different brain regions according to the route of administration, supporting the duality of olf...

Vitamin A's paradoxical role in influencing symmetry during embryonic development revealed

..., shoulders, etc.) sequentially; back-front, which distinguishes our back from our front; and left-right, which distinguishes our left and right parts. The novel findings reported by Belmonte's team illustrate how the develop...

Whole genome promoter mapping - Human Genome Project v2.0?

...roduct is generated - is the critical element that distinguishes a gene from 'junk DNA.' Using a set of NimbleGen's DNA microarrays that represent the entire human genome, the team was able to track critical proteins binding to each gene's promoter to identify 10,567 active promoters, 6 091 of which were previousl...

Alaskan puzzles, monitoring provide insight about North Pacific salmon runs

...her fish species and juvenile salmon growth, which distinguishes the data set from other salmon monitoring records. ...

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