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Tag: "discriminate" at biology news

St. Jude study solves mystery of mammalian ears

...als have such sensitive hearing and the ability to discriminate among frequencies. The work also highlights the importance of basic hearing research in studies into the causes of deafness. A report on this work appears in the advanced online issue of “Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.” “Our discov...

New research shows sharks use their noses and bodies to locate smells

...ew animals that located any of the targets did not discriminate between odor and seawater plumes, let alone targets. "These results demonstrate for the first time that sharks require both olfactory and lateral line input for efficient and precise tracking of odor-flavored wakes and that visual input can impro...

Detecting cold, feeling pain: Study reveals why menthol feels fresh

...g menthol. The genetically engineered mice did not discriminate between warm and cold surfaces until the temperature dropped to extremes. "It's been known for years that menthol and related cooling agents evoke the psychophysical sensation of cold – somehow by interacting with the aspect of the sensory nervous...

Early exposure to indoor fungus molecules may protect infants against future allergies

...e explains, "but antibacterial disinfectants can’t discriminate between helpful and harmful microbes—they destroy them all. "This eliminates the natural competition among bacteria and fungi, so the surviving microbes are often the infectious ones that can develop resistance to drugs designed to eliminate them....

DOE JGI sets 'gold standard' for metagenomic data analysis

...e frequencies. Patterns of these features help to discriminate between the possible groups of organisms that contributed the sequence. Several more methods have been proposed for binning, but none of these on their own have proven satisfactory, Mavrommatis said. "What we propose in the paper is a way to eval...

Loss of a universal tRNA feature reported

...fferent aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases have adapted to discriminate between their cognate or related substrates and the now less distinctive tRNAHis." ...

Using brain scans, researchers find evidence for a two-stage model of human perceptual learning

...ottom-up") and more sophisticated brain areas that discriminate between these shapes to categorize and "label" that information ("top-down"). A human can't function without the ability to sort between objects and organize them in fluid ways, said the study's lead author, Maximilian Riesenhuber, Ph.D., the pri...

Making mice with enhanced color vision

...the researchers only tested whether the mice could discriminate among the lights. "Each photoreceptor absorbs...lways be distinguished." Normal mice failed to discriminate yellow versus red lights when the light intensities were set to give equal activation of their middl...

Prion disease treatable if caught early

...effects of prion disease on the animals?ability to discriminate novel objects in their cage and on normal burrowing behavior. In both cases, deficits in those abilities appeared early in the disease. Also, studies of the animals?brain tissue revealed a parallel impairment of signaling among brain cells. Howeve...

New dyslexia theory blames 'noise'

...CLA found that children with dyslexia struggled to discriminate similar sounds, like "spy" and "sky," because they weighed irrelevant differences in sounds equally with key distinctions. Manis also cited research from Finland and the United States showing that infants with dyslexic parents lag behind their pee...

Two central mysteries in genome inheritance solved at UCSD

...ied a separate protein complex that helps the cell discriminate between correct and incorrect spindle connections,...osomes and microtubule polymers, which operates to discriminate between correct and incorrect chromosome-spindle attachments. Each replicated chromosome is compri...

Gene chip technology shows potential for identifying life-threatening blood infection

...e in St. Louis found the profiles could accurately discriminate between the two conditions 94 percent of the time. The molecular profiles measure differences in patterns of gene expression that are unique to sepsis vs. non-infectious inflammation. "Our findings hold out hope that scientists could develop a sim...

Results with newer bladeless LASIK equivalent to standard microkeratome LASIK

...ng an eye chart), contrast sensitivity (ability to discriminate bright objects from dark objects), or in perception of stray light or glare, such as the glare from oncoming headlights," says Sanjay Patel, M.D., Mayo Clinic ophthalmologist and study investigator. Given the equivalent findings thus far in eye he...

Drug dials down the energy within cells, UM researchers find

...nventional drugs for these conditions, which can't discriminate between healthy and disease-causing cells, Bz-423 is highly selective, homing in on disease-causing cells. In an attempt to better exploit its therapeutic properties, the researchers have been studying the details of Bz-423's activity. They learned ...

NYU researchers decorate virus particles, showing potential to enhance MRI capabilities

...ity of medical imaging techniques, such as MRI, to discriminate between different tissue types. MICA includes Chemistry Professor James Canary, radiologist Dr. Edwin Wang, and assistant chemistry professor Kent Kirshenbaum. Assistance for the study was provided by the University of New Mexico's Department of Mole...

New light microscope sharpens scientists' focus

... edges appear to overlap and the microscope cannot discriminate between them. So a cluster of labeled molecules appears as a merged glow that cannot be decomposed into individual sources. But when Hess and Betzig learned of the new fluorescent labels, developed by George Patterson in the lab of Jennifer Lippin...

Is the brain wired for faces?

... same neural mechanisms for faces that are used to discriminate other objects. Over the years, because of the importance of facial identity and expression for social communication, humans have simply developed a strong talent for recognizing and distinguishing faces. This experience with faces then leads to the l...

Behavioral studies show UV contributes to marsupial color vision

...ts detection of UV light as part of its ability to discriminate between colors. The new work is reported by a group including Dr. Catherine Arrese of the University of Western Australia and appears in the March 21st issue of Current Biology. The most prevalent system of color vision in mammals is known as dichro...

Gene patterns in white blood cells quickly diagnose disease

...s has identified a list of over 300 genes that can discriminate among 8 pathogenic agents with 99 percent accuracy," says Hammamieh. They are also looking for gene expression patterns that could help determine severity of exposure While the technology for conducting these tests in the field is still in develop...

Born with a love of speech

... an ear for speech in the womb? Could the newborns discriminate between just the low frequency aspects (those that are heard across the womb) of their speech analogue and non-sense words? If they showed a similar preference for the low-frequency non-sense words over the speech analogues it would indicate that the...

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