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Tag: "diffusion" at biology news

Dual-imaging technique useful before -- and during -- brain surgery

...in Chicago. To combine both functional MRI and diffusion tensor tractography images in the operating room, ...n areas linked to speech, movement and vision, and diffusion tensor imaging data to map critical “white-matter tracts”—the electrical connections between differe...

Soft-cell approach cuts animal tests

...rown on a porous polyester membrane inside a small diffusion chamber and then exposed to selected toxic air pollutants. After as little as one hour's exposure, they can study cell growth and metabolism, and a range of routine toxicological endpoints. Importantly, the toxic measurements obtained by the in vit...

New fMRI technology making brain tumor surgery safer

...LAB equipment also enables physicians to integrate diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which provides a map of critical white-matter tracts in the brain. “White-matter tracts,?said Dr. Leach, “are like the electrical connections between different parts of a house. If you disrupt that connection, you have no commun...

Life in the extreme

...ters in size, where fluid is released through slow diffusion from the sea floor. Mud volcanoes which are active areas of fluid seepage, are other extreme environments discovered in the 1990s. These harsh conditions give rise to some of the most extreme and scientifically challenging environments for life to ex...

What does the public really know about HPV?

...nitor this possible increase. We plan to track the diffusion of knowledge to make sure that all women have accurate knowledge about HPV and how to prevent cervical cancer." The Effects of Information Framing on Intentions to Vaccinate Against HPV The success of the HPV vaccine depends largely on the publ...

Study defines effective microbicide design for HIV/AIDS prevention

...ies a topical microbicide. The model describes the diffusion of the virus and active ingredients into the tissu...e form -- especially its ability to restrict viral diffusion and remain in place -- in microbicide effectiveness," Katz added. More than 20 microbicidal chemic...

One-dimensional diffusion accelerates molecular motors

...reaches the position via a random, one-dimensional diffusion movement along the microtubule, until it locks into place at its end (Nature, May 4, 2006). This discovery is important for understanding cellular life processes like cell division and nerve cell growth. When cells divide, they build a giant apparat...

New tool tracks brain development in babies

...ia results in tissue changes that are visible with diffusion tensor imaging at least two to three hours before ...on of the brain's white matter tracts based on the diffusion tensor images. The procedure was repeated after three months to monitor the development of the injur...

New MRI technique shows emphysema in asymptomatic smokers

...e second image they obtained is called an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map, which shows the size of the airspaces in the lungs. Because emphysema increases airspace size, the ADC map shows the location and severity of the disease. "The ADC maps are very sensitive to changes in the lung structure," Dr....

Movement of chromosome in nucleus visualized

...cation of the chromosomes was the result of random diffusion or if they are moved around by molecular motors. In a study published in the April 17 issue of Current Biology, UIC and UIUC researchers show that chromosomes in the cell nucleus are capable of directed, long-range movement that depends on actin an...

Botox could help target resistant tumors for treatment

...is administered inside the tumor with very limited diffusion into normal tissues, which may limit the amount of damage to normal cells in proximity to the tumor. "This is the first experimental model demonstrating how Botox can affect the reaction of blood vessels that feed tumors," said Gallez. "Tumor microv...

A biosensor layered like lasagna

...r, but after that, the more enzyme layers" inhibit diffusion of the glucose. Now that the glucose enzyme biosensor has passed the test, Lin said, it should be possible to build a similar sensor using other enzymes that react specifically with other biological chemicals, environmental agents or even microbes ...

Some good news for the world's poor

...ch directly improves farmers' income. Second, the diffusion of modern varieties results in lower food prices, as demonstrated in several studies. This is critical given that the poorest people spend a large share of their income on food. Third, the productivity consequences of improved varieties resulted in ...

Motor transport in bio-nano systems

...ilaments have been shown to lead to enhanced motor diffusion along the substrate surface. All of these results ... are actually constructed in the lab. The enhanced diffusion of motors at regular patterns of filaments provides an instructive example: When integrated into exi...

Key mechanism in genetic inheritance during cell division identified

...in nature. This could allow for lateral sliding or diffusion of Dam1 rings along microtubules. Analysis of the Dam1 rings after disassembly of microtubules, revealed an accumulation of rings at the ends of the microtubule, suggesting that the rings do not disassemble but slide back as the microtubule protofila...

New imaging method gives early indication if brain cancer therapy is effective, U-M study shows

...loped the assessment, which they call a functional diffusion map. They used a magnetic resonance imaging scan t... water through the brain and mapped the changes in diffusion from the start of therapy to three weeks later. The tumor cells block the flow of water, so as those...

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