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Tag: "dictate" at biology news

Scientists reveal how disease bacterium survives inside immune system cell

...plentiful white blood cells, known as neutrophils, dictate whether our immune system will permit or prevent bacterial infections. A paper describing the research was released today online in The Journal of Immunology. Frank R. DeLeo, Ph.D., of Rocky Mountain Laboratories (RML), part of the National Institute...

Fluorescing lab worms signal longer life spans

... organisms have "hidden physiological states" that dictate their ability to deal with the rigors of life. Ac...s in how stress-response mechanisms are maintained dictate how individual organisms respond to specific environmental insults." Carried out using about 100,00...

Brain size may depend upon how neural cells are cleaved

...been speculated that the different division planes dictate the ultimate cell fate adoption of daughter cells," said Tsai. To determine definitively whether impairment of Gβγ had a direct effect on cell fate, the researchers impaired Gβγ signaling in the mouse brains in utero, then isolated the progenitor ce...

UW-Madison scientists zero in on drugs' sweet spots

...ays sugar groups are organized on a molecule often dictate the agent's biological effects. "In the past, to alter the sugars attached to these drugs was very difficult," explains Thorson, of the UW-Madison Pharmacy School's Laboratory for Biosynthetic Chemistry. "These are very complex molecules." The new ...

Tiny roundworm's telomeres help scientists to tease apart different types of aging

...ve conclusive evidence that telomeres alone do not dictate aging and lifespan," says Karlseder. Each time a cell divides, its telomeres get shorter, a process called replicative or cellular aging. Some have likened this progressive erosion of telomeres to a genetic biological clock that winds down over time...

HIV inserts into human genome using a DNA-associated protein

...ies that LEDGF is part of the machinery that helps dictate the placement of retroviral integration sites within chromosomes," says Bushman. Bushman notes that finding that LEDGF is part of the cellular apparatus necessary for HIV replication is important to the field of gene therapy. Controlling where gene-...

Why the Amazon rainforest is so rich in species

... and their individual reactions to the environment dictate the pattern of evolution in each group." Professor Mallet and PhD student Alaine Whinnett tested the "DNA clock" using the mitochondrial DNA of nine different butterfly species groups [genera] on the eastern side of the Andes in Eastern Peru. By us...

The evolution of food plants: Genetic control of grass flower architecture

...rne on axillary branches, whose branching patterns dictate most of the variation in form seen in the grasses. Maize produces two types of inflorescence; the tassel (male pollen-bearing flowers) and the ear (female flowers and site of seed or kernel development). The tassel forms from the shoot apical meriste...

Cholesterol gets 'thumbs up' for role in digit development

...lining concentrations (or gradient) of the protein dictate the identity of the other digits. "Questions have remained about what regulates the Sonic hedgehog gradient,"said Chiang. "And we've been working on that for a number of years." One clue about this regulation came when other researchers discovered...

How taste response is hard-wired into the brain

...es by activation of dedicated neural circuits that dictate behavioral outputs," they wrote. ...

Molecule does more than slice and dice RNA

...interference, which can turn genes off and thereby dictate key developmental events. "The bottom line we've learned from the structure is that Dicer is a molecular ruler," Doudna explained. "It gives us a lot of insight into how the mechanism works." Dicer, which is ubiquitous in the cells of higher animal...

Advanced genomics and proteomics improve the diagnosis and treatment of a deadly lung disease

...interference, which can turn genes off and thereby dictate key developmental events. "The bottom line we've learned from the structure is that Dicer is a molecular ruler," Doudna explained. "It gives us a lot of insight into how the mechanism works." Dicer, which is ubiquitous in the cells of higher animal...

UF scientists discover evolutionary origin of fins, limbs

...me cells that form the vertebrae. These same genes dictate the emergence of symmetrical pairs of fins on the animal sides, showing a shared developmental mechanism in completely different locations, according to Renata Freitas and GuangJun Zhang, co-authors of the paper and graduate students in UF's zoology ...

Revolution in the fight against cancer & viruses

...cture of siRNA to target specific diseases, we can dictate whether we want a particular siRNA-based drug to block or promote an immune response, to increase the effectiveness of the treatment," he said. "While our research is at an early stage, human trials using siRNA are currently underway in the USA and ...

It's all in the genes

...ol the characteristics of that individual but also dictate the behavior of thousands of other organisms in a community. They say these genes, in fact, influence the evolution of an entire ecosystem. "We're pushing a whole new field of research," said lead investigator Tom Whitham, Regents Professor of bio...

Promising cell protein may play role in infection and dry eye

...y help us understand the molecular mechanisms that dictate the different expression profiles of PAI-2 in human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells." ...

The shape of life: research sheds light on how cells take shape

... answer: Physical, as well as chemical, forces can dictate pattern formation. In a two-year study, Brown physicists James Valles and Jay Tang puzzled over the patterns created by proteins called microtubules. Shaped like long, skinny straws, these proteins are puny ?they measure only about 250 atoms wide ?...

No-mow grass may be coming to your yard soon

... But access to a pathway used by plant hormones to dictate size promises broader influence over the many genes involved in the process of growth. Levers that could be used to alter a hormone pathway to influence plant development and stature, according to Chory, include modifying the levels of the hormone, m...

Newly discovered behavior in cancer cells signals dangerous metastasis

...s necessitate. The proteins that the cell produces dictate which way the cell shifts. In a classic example of survival of the fittest, a cancer cell's ability to toggle between epithelial and mesenchymal enables the most malignant cells to aggressively invade and then peacefully adapt in unfamiliar territor...

Living view in animals shows how cells decide to make proteins

...issues and organs. These varied proteins, in turn, dictate the function of each tissue or organ. The findings also may offer insight into a number of diseases, including cancer, in which the genetic process -- called alternative splicing -- goes awry and produces the wrong proteins, the scientists said. ...

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