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Tag: "defines" at biology news

Found: Missing sequence of the human Y chromosome

...ormant genomiclandscape, termed "heterochromatin," defines approximately two-thirdsof the Y chromosome, including a section spanning the centromere. Suchrepetitive sequences, although not recalcitrant to cloning, arelaborious to assemble, requiring meticulous analysis of complexrepeated sequences.In this cas...

Fibril Shape Is The Basis Of Prion Strains And Cross-species Prion Infection

... amino acid sequence is still important because it defines a set of possible preferred fibril shapes that prions can adopt, Weissman says. Species with similar amino acids sequences share an overlapping set of shapes, which helps explain why species with shared sequences have the ability to infect each other...

Insight into DNA's 'weakest links' may yield clues to cancer biology

...egin to ask whether there is anything special that defines those places where chromosomes tend to break." Organisms normally exhibit extremely low rates of mutation and chromosomal rearrangements. Conditions that elevate genomic instability lead to an increase in cell death and, in some cases, an increased ...

Certain fish have a special mating preference

...to its obvious link to reproduction, which largely defines species boundaries. Evolutionary changes in male genital morphology between populations may result in reproductive incompatibility when populations merge again in the future, resulting in the generation of new species. "Since gonopodium size is high...

IMF Launches World’s First DNA Database for Myeloma Patients

...to its obvious link to reproduction, which largely defines species boundaries. Evolutionary changes in male genital morphology between populations may result in reproductive incompatibility when populations merge again in the future, resulting in the generation of new species. "Since gonopodium size is high...

Major advance made on DNA structure

...ined by those sequences, and, ultimately, how that defines biological function. "There can be 400 million nucleotides in a human chromosome, but only about 10 percent of them actually code for genes," said Pui Shing Ho, professor and chair of the OSU Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. "The other 90 ...

Analysis of flower genes reveals the fate of an ancient gene duplication

...ther product of a gene-duplication event. The work defines a new standard for the evidence required to establish the evolutionary relationships of genes from different species. ...

Beyond genes: Lipid helps cell wall protein fold into proper shape

...g an impermeable water-unfriendly inner layer that defines the outer surface of cells. Transport of nutrients and waste material across the cell membrane is then governed by the specific proteins associated with it. In a strain of E. coli lacking PE, the GabP protein misfolded, with two areas of the protein...

New book highlights world's borderless conservation areas

...r lost." The title, "Transboundary Conservation," defines the new terminology for international efforts to protect ecosystems in their entirety. From the first transboundary protected area established in 1932, when Montana's Glacier National Park was joined with Canada's Waterton Lakes National Park in Albe...

Scientists crack code for motor neuron wiring

...ls. Our initial work hinted that the Hox code that defines column identity might also be involved in establishing the extreme diversity of motor pools." Using antibodies to the Hox proteins that define spinal motor neurons, Dasen and colleagues mapped the timing and location of each of the Hox proteins expr...

MiRNA fingerprint identified in platelet formation

...se genes create a molecular signature that clearly defines a megakaryocyte from any other type of cell. "We believe this set of genes may contribute to platelet formation," says Garzon. "We think that when these miRNAs are turned off, it's a signal to other gene targets to get busy with the normal process ...

Biologists visualize protein interaction that may initiate viral infection

...ll proteins that viruses bind to, and the number 3 defines a specific protein. "The binding occurs on dendritic cells, which are usually one of the first lines of defense in the immune system," Kuhn said. "The first step in a virus infecting a cell is usually the attachment of the virus to the receptor. Tha...

Retinol for combating leukemia cells

...h occur in cells: necrosis and apoptosis. Necrosis defines a pathological death, i.e. a death caused by a lack or deficit within the cell such as lack of oxygen or food. On the other hand, apoptosis is the pre-programmed death of a cell. A number of cells have to die in order that our organism function cor...

Autistic brain has fewer neurons for processing emotion

...o the primary core deficit in social function that defines this disorder," says Emanuel DiCicco-Bloom, MD, professor of pediatric neurology at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. Authors Cynthia Schumann, PhD, of the University of California, San Diego, and David Amaral, PhD, director o...

Scientists discover a genetic code for organizing DNA within the nucleus

...d DNA repair. Thus, the positioning of nucleosomes defines the segments in which these processes can and can't take place. These limitations are considerable: Most of the DNA is packaged into nucleosomes. A single nucleosome contains about 150 genetic bases (the "letters" that make up a genetic sequence), wh...

Flick of whiskers helps tease out brain's 'shadow' signaling system

...part of everyday higher cognitive functioning that defines who we are as humans," she said. For years astrocytes have been related to the status of helper to the neurons, which rely on astrocytes to bring nutrients and to clean up after them. While scientists have known that neurons fire electrically in spe...

Biologists find regions of rice domestication

...rs. Cultivated rice has a genetic signature that defines it as cultivated, Schaal explained. "What you do is go out and sample all the wild rice across regions and you look for that signature in the wild," said Schaal, who has done similar work with cassava and jocote, a tropical fruit. "You find that th...

Copying nature could save us energy, study shows

... "By better understanding the way in which biology defines and solves technical problems, we can develop new approaches that could significantly reduce our dependence on energy. "It is likely that we have similar technologies to nature ?it's just that we use them in a particularly unintelligent way. "Exa...

Gut reaction: Researchers define the colon's genome

...e opening salvo of a Human Microbiome Project that defines the microbial side of ourselves, suggests co-author Jeffrey Gordon, a microbiologist at Washington University in St. Louis. Gordon envisions such a project pursuing fundamental questions. How different are our microbiomes? Should differences in our m...

Protect patients from exploitation by alternative medicines industry

...e medicines industry to the level of scrutiny that defines pharmaceuticals" “Reclassify these agents as drugs - for this is after all how they are marketed - and protect our patients from vile and cynical exploitation whose intellectual basis, at best, might be viewed as delusional. The current EU initiat...

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