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Tag: "deficit" at biology news

Gene therapy study shows safety and statistically significant improvement in Parkinson's disease

...activity is abnormally increased, largely due to a deficit in GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Increasing GAD causes more GABA to be synthesized, thus helping to calm the STN over-activity. The value of this strategy has been demonstrated in previous human s...

How the brain's backup system compensates for stroke

...erformance recovery, the subjects showed a renewed deficit in performance on the button-pushing task. The researchers pointed out that, because the PMd is important for learning new connections between eye and motor function, it "is particularly well placed to mediate learning of new motor strategies afte...

Rare cell prevents rampant brain activity

...bits. It is possible that epilepsy is related to a deficit of Martinotti cells or a deficiency of Martinotti activity in the brain." ...

Prenatal cocaine's lasting cellular effects

...ousal problems, similar to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the standard treatments for ADHD -- Ritalin and other stimulants -- are not always effective in these children. Studying the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on the developing brain is difficult in huma...

Racing neurons control whether we stop or go

...s explain the impulsivity of people with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder," study co-author Jeffr...re significantly longer in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders than in other children," he said. The model has been widely accepted ...

Brain networks strengthened by closing ion channels

...s in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). "Our data reveal how the brain's arousal systems influence the cognitive networks that subserve working memory-which plays a key role in abstract thinking, planning, and organizing, as well as suppressing attention t...

Experimental vaccine given during pregnancy reduces stillbirths from common virus

...lopmental disabilities such as autism or attention deficit disorder. The virus can also damage the placenta, leading to pregnancy loss. CMV is present in bodily secretions and is spread through close personal contact, such as kissing or sharing eating utensils. For example, an infant in daycare could gi...

A silent pandemic: Industrial chemicals are impairing the brain development of children worldwide

...odevelopmental disorders (NDDs)--autism, attention deficit disorder (ADHD), and mental retardation. Still, there has been insufficient research done to identify the individual chemicals that can cause injury to the developing brains of children. In a new review study, published online in The Lancet on Nove...

New dyslexia theory blames 'noise'

...0-year-old theory that blamed dyslexia on a neural deficit in processing the fast sounds of language. Inst...ings point to a deeper problem - not just a visual deficit - affecting all areas of perception. Sperling said people with dyslexia appear to have shaky men...

Mice learn tasks that may help treat human psychiatric disorders

...milar illnesses. "Without a measure of cognitive deficit in mice that is relevant to such disorders in humans, research into new diagnostic methods, treatments and cures is severely hindered," said Joseph Garner, a Purdue assistant professor of animal sciences and the study's lead author. "The level of com...

Autistic brain has fewer neurons for processing emotion

...ikely contribute significantly to the primary core deficit in social function that defines this disorder," says Emanuel DiCicco-Bloom, MD, professor of pediatric neurology at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. Authors Cynthia Schumann, PhD, of the University of California, San Diego, a...

Survivors of childhood polio do well decades later as they age

...ad weakness problems during our study had a larger deficit at the end of their childhood disease, making them more likely to develop symptoms. So, as deficits at the end of the disease increase, the probability of experiencing post-polio symptoms increases." The discrepancy between what some of the patien...

Study reveals how ADHD drugs work in brain

...ons such as Ritalin to quell symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), scientists have struggled to pinpoint how the drugs work in the brain. But new work at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is now starting to clear up some of the mystery. Writing in the journal Biological Psychiatry,...

It's not fair! We are programmed to resist weight loss

...dvice. "In the first study, the subjects' energy deficit was caused by exercise only which was fixed and imposed in contrast to the second study where subjects used diet and exercise to lose weight but chose how much they did of each." Dr King said the first group's weight loss during the first eight wee...

Ritalin packs punch by elevating norepinephrine, suppressing nerve signal transmissions

...explain how a stimulant aids people with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders to improve their focus...n 20 years, mostly in children, to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attention deficit disorder (ADD). The drug can also help people wh...

History of human cannibalism eats away at researchers

...nts, our results showed that there was, in fact, a deficit of intermediate frequency variants," says Bertranpetit. "Our results are consistent with a complex history of episodic or fluctuating selection, including positive selection, purifying selection, and possibly even short periods of balancing selecti...

Retinol for combating leukemia cells

...thological death, i.e. a death caused by a lack or deficit within the cell such as lack of oxygen or food. On the other hand, apoptosis is the pre-programmed death of a cell. A number of cells have to die in order that our organism function correctly: for example, when the feet of a foetus are developed in...

Brain activity related to processing faces is similar in people with, without autism

...y thought the problem might have more to do with a deficit in "executive function" in portions of the brain's frontal lobes than with a selective deficit in the brain's processing of information from faces. These portions of the frontal lobes are where...

'Acid rain' and forest mass: Another perspective

... of the same. One classic effect is that of cation deficit (particularly magnesium) due to the washing both of the forest canopy and the soil produced by these together with anions (sulphates and nitrates). This problem is not very common in forest ecosystems close to the sea given that, in these conditions,...

UT Southwestern researchers discover master switch in cell death

...id. For instance, a tumor may contain cells with a deficit of Mule, making the tumor more likely to grow and perhaps be resistant to chemotherapy. Treatment might then focus on the biochemistry of Mule and Mcl-1, he said. “We might be able to see if there’s a problem with Mule, or perhaps we could screen be...

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