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Tag: "defense" at biology news

One species, many genomes

..., on the other hand, such as those responsible for defense against pathogens or infections, are much more variable than the average gene. "The genetic variability appears to reflect adaptation of local circumstances," says Weigel. It is likely that such variable genes allow plants to withstand dry or wet, ho...

Newly found sensing system enables certain bacteria to resist human immune defenses

...acks from antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are defense molecules sent by the body to kill bacteria. Bacteria are divided into two types, gram-positive and gram-negative, with the primary difference being the nature of the bacterial cell wall. Little is known about how gram-positive bacteria—such as thos...

Newly discovered antibody may be body's natural defense against Alzheimer's

...xious threat. "This could be part of an innate defense mechanism against Alzheimer's and other age-related neurodegenerative disorders," comments Dr. Marc Weksler, The Irving Wright Sherwood Professor of Geriatrics and professor of medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College, and senior investigator in the...

Ancient retrovirus sheds light on modern pandemic

...presence of an ancient, rapidly evolving antiviral defense gene called TRIM5a, which produces a protein that ... that this is because humans had this innate viral defense system," Emerman said. To test their hypothesis, Emerman and co-authors Harmit Singh Malik, Ph.D.,...

New vaccine prevents CMV infection and disease in mice

... the virus. “We needed a way to make the host defense system sit up and take notice,” said Christopher S. Morello, Ph.D., first author of the study. To do this, the researchers devised a vaccine with a one-two punch that combines a DNA immunization that targets T-cells to essential genes required for...

Scientists discover 5 new species of sea slugs from the Tropical Eastern Pacific

...outer shells—have developed sophisticated chemical defense mechanisms, which is particularly important because promising industrial and medicinal products have been isolated from known species. New species may provide cures for diseases that are currently untreatable. Working from the Smithsonian Tropical...

Molecule that destroys bone also protects it, new research shows

...wledge about the molecules that contribute to host defense versus pathology is very important for gaining a fundamental understanding of the immune system," Gaffen said, "but also because the consequences of therapies that target these cytokines need to be understood." ...

Herpes infection may be symbiotic, help beat back some bacteria

... patrol for invaders with their eyes wide open and defense weapons ready." Other scientists previously had shown that interferon gamma helps the immune system fight off some strains of bacteria. This led Virgin and his colleagues to test herpes-infected mice with exposure to the bacteria Yersinia pestis, ...

Corals that can fight global warming may one day help fragile reefs

...be keys to coral reef survival. "A first line of defense is provided by surface microorganisms ?[that] produce antibiotics that can help corals fight pathogenic bacteria," reported Harvell. However, not all corals are able to produce such defenses under thermal stress. "Some corals show unusual resilienc...

In young mice, gregariousness seems to reside in the genes

...s associated with sexual reproduction, territorial defense and parental care. Those studies, say Lahvis and Panksepp, do not account for the many forms of social interaction that occur prior to sexual maturity, nor do they account for the many kinds of social groupings that occur throughout the animal kingdo...

Scientists find genes involved in the battle between Hessian flies and wheat

... author of the paper. The toxic oxygen compound defense mechanism in resistant plants stresses the larvae,... On resistant plants, Hessian fly larvae encounter defense mechanisms that include poisonous oxygen compounds, Shukle said. These compounds, also called reacti...

Microbes start immune response by sneaking inside cells

Immune cells that are the body’s front-line defense don’t necessarily rest quietly until invading bacteria lock onto receptors on their outside skins and rouse them to action, as previously thought. In a new paper, University of Michigan scientists describe their findings that bacteria can barge insid...

Wheat can fatally starve insect predators

...rom insect damage. "This is a different kind of defense than we were expecting," said Christie Williams, a USDA-Agricultural Research Service scientist and Purdue Department of Entomology adjunct assistant professor. "Usually we expect the plant to fortify its cell walls or make poisons to use against ins...

Scientists find potential 'off-switch' for HIV virus

...e serve as the metaphorical generals in the body's defense system against illness. When an HIV virus particle invades a T cell, most often it converts the cell into a factory for making other viral particles, killing the cell in the process. Without these T cells, the body loses its ability to repel other in...

Scientists unveil piece of HIV protein that may be key to AIDS vaccine development

... HIV, the more we realized just how many levels of defense the virus has against attacks by the immune system." For example, not only does HIV mutate rapidly and continuously—defeating attempts by the immune system to identify and destroy it—the virus is also swathed by sugary molecules. This nearly impenetr...

FSU researchers determine a critical factor in workings of proteins

...ological processes, such as the utilization of and defense against toxins; the activation of receptor proteins on cell membranes by growth hormones; and the regulation of actin polymerization, which influences the physical structure of living cells. The association rate thus plays a critical role in the over...

Dual gene therapy suppresses lung cancer in preclinical test

... form of cholesterol to protect it from the body's defense mechanisms. "You can't deliver naked DNA for cancer therapy," Ji says. The nanoparticles accumulate mainly in the lungs, particularly in the tumors, Ji says. The positively charged nanoparticles are delivered to the negatively charged cancer cell ...

Trojan horse strategy defeats drug-resistant bacteria

...tress imposed on microbes by one of the body's own defense mechanisms. "The competition for iron is criti...e and microbiology at the UW. "The body has potent defense mechanisms to keep iron away from infecting organisms, and invaders must steal some if they are to s...

Intravenous nanoparticle gene therapy shows activity in stage IV lung cancer

... form of cholesterol to protect it from the body's defense mechanisms. The nanoparticles accumulate mainly in the lungs, particularly in the tumors, where the genes repeatedly express FUS1 tumor-suppressing proteins. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, causing 160,0...

Protein found to shield pancreatic cancer cells from self-destruction

... Apoptosis, like autophagy, is a normal biological defense mechanism that systematically destroys defective cells by forcing them to kill themselves. In apoptosis, the cells die via damage to their nucleus and DNA, with other cellular organelles preserved. Autophagy kills by degrading those other organelles...

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