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Tag: "damage" at biology news

Deficient DNA Repair Capacity Associated With Increased Risk Of Breast Cancer

... DNA repair contributes to the accumulation of DNA damage and accelerates the genetic changes involved in carcinogenesis. To evaluate whether reduced DNA repair capacity in the nucleotide excision pathway that fixes DNA alterations known as bulky DNA adducts is associated with breast cancer risk, Regina M....

Spleen may be source of versatile stem cells

...en that are important for healing several types of damage orinjury," says Denise Faustman, MD, PhD, director of the MGHImmunobiology Laboratory and senior author of the SAGE KE report. "Ifso, these cells could have much broader therapeutic applications thansuggested by our earlier work."In 2001 Faustman's t...

Enzyme, lost in most mammals, is shown to protect against UV-induced skin cancer

...repair system to identify theprincipal type of DNA damage responsible for the onset of skin-tumordevelopment...skincancer. Ultraviolet light is a knownsource of damage to our DNA, but under normal conditions humans andother mammals are capable of removing UV-induced D...

Mouse brain cells rapidly recover after Alzheimer's plaques are cleared

...disappeared. "Theseswellings represent structural damage that seemed to be wellestablished and stable, but ...tzman and some other scientists hadregarded plaque damage to nerve cells as a fait accompli--somethingthat the plaques only needed to inflict on nerve cells o...

Genome of deadly amoeba shows surprising complexity, evidence of lateral gene transfer

...es the same methods to kill bacteria as it uses to damage human cells and cause disease, the level of certai...minated food or water. The disease can cause liver damage but more often causes dysentery, a severe diarrhea that is often associated with blood in the feces....

Key molecule in plant photo-protection identified

...disappeared. "Theseswellings represent structural damage that seemed to be wellestablished and stable, but ...tzman and some other scientists hadregarded plaque damage to nerve cells as a fait accompli--somethingthat the plaques only needed to inflict on nerve cells o...

Ecological destruction fuels emerging diseases

...rophe, warns a Canadian zoologist. This ecological damage also endangers human health by turning parasites into "evolutionary land mines." Dr. Daniel (Dan) Brooks, a parasitologist at the University of Toronto, says the decline of global biodiversity is linked to the emergence of new human and wildlife dis...

“Nano-scissors?laser shows precise surgical capability

...irming that theprecision of the laser’s cut didn’t damage surrounding tissue andallowed the neurons to grow a new axon to reach the muscle. Until now,researchers have only been able to investigate nerve regeneration inmice and zebrafish, which have complex nervous systems. This laserallows researchers to st...

U-M scientist to talk about tissue engineering at AAAS

...h of a human mouth as well as compensating for the damage of radiation. "It's not just a question of whether we can make new tissue in a perfect condition. Now we're mimicking what can really happen in a person, and we don't know if the rules of regeneration might be totally different," said Paul Krebsbach...

U of M researcher examines newly emerging deadly disease

...to widespread severe purpura with extensive tissue damage and sloughing of skin. Purpura are skin lesions that may be many centimeters in diameter caused by the leakage of blood into the skin. "It is important to alert medical professionals about the symptoms and treatments of this new deadly disease," sai...

Spider Venom Could Yield Eco-Friendly Insecticides

...even to increased dosages, while the environmental damage and human health risks associated with the chemicals have increased, according to King. "We have a very good reason to look for a safer, nontoxic, and more efficient pesticide. More than a billion pounds of pesticides are sprayed in the U.S. every y...

Plant hemoglobins: Oxygen handlers critical for nitrogen fixation

...ntrations in nodules at levels low enough to avoid damage of oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase, the bacterial enzyme complex responsible for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Thus, plant hemoglobins fulfill roles analogous to those of animal hemoglobins, as well as novel roles that are apparently unique to symbiotic ...

Taking Aim With Nanoparticle PEBBLEs

... to cancer cells is too unstable to wander off and damage healthy cells, so only targeted cells are affected. Including molecules that make PEBBLEs more visible in MRI images provides an added bonus, helping to show where tumors are located and how they respond to treatment. In recent experiments with a sm...

Probing The Promise And Perils Of Nanoparticles

...y investigating how certain kinds of nanoparticles damage cell membranes—enough to cause cell death in some cases—and how the damage can be prevented. "If you're inventing these sorts of materials, you need to be concerned about the...

Scientists identify genetic pathways essential to RNA interference

...destruction," says Kim. "And the connection to DNA damage pathways, which was totally unexpected, suggests a potential connection between RNAi and the control of cell division in cancer." The researchers note that better understanding the mechanisms underlying RNAi could help transform what has been a rese...

Gene Therapy For Parkinson's Disease Moves Forward In Animals

...ing small monkeys called marmosets prevented brain damage by producing therapeutic levels of a protein that helps nourish brain cells, said Ron Mandel, Ph.D., a scientist with the University of Florida's McKnight Brain Institute and Genetics Institute who was part of the research team. The protein, called ...

Researchers add new tool to tumor-treatment arsenal

...veness of treating tumors by combining agents that damage DNA with a drug that sensitizes cancer cells to th...d p53) responds by either killing the cell, if the damage is too severe, or allowing the cancer cell to repair the damaged DNA. If the DNA is repaired, cells ...

Why do insects stop 'breathing'? To avoid damage from too much oxygen, say researchers

...dically to keep out excess oxygen, thus preventing damage to their tissues. Timothy Bradley, professor of e...is excess internal oxygen that can cause oxidative damage -- the destruction of biomaterial due to excess oxygen -- to tissues. To protect their bodies, insec...

Research Gives Hope For Liver Damage

... and heart trouble, have made dramaticgains, liver damage - described as the new plague of the 21st century ...llexplore the role of these immune-system cells in damage and repair toother organs, including the kidney....

Bird Brains Show How Trial and Error May Contribute to Learning

...f solo song. Finally, they showed that birds with damage to that region of the brain lost their improvisational ability. In birds without a functioning LMAN, Kao and her colleagues still found differences between the two types of songs, but the solo song lost its subtle variations. "In a nutshell, our pap...

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