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Tag: "cytoplasm" at biology news

Gladstone investigators identify a new protective action for the powerful anti-HIV factor, APOBEC3G

...he retro-element RNAs and sequestering them in the cytoplasm away from the nuclear machinery required for copying the RNA back into DNA and inserting the retro-element at a new chromosomal site. Understanding A3G's role in activated CD4 T cells could lead to a new strategy against HIV. "If we can find a w...

Cellular traffic backups implicated in skeletal malformations

...ers called vesicles, which traverse the gelatinous cytoplasm of the cell's interior. The vesicles eventually dock with the Golgi, a structure that resembles a pancake stack and is the last major "transit station" of the cell. In the Golgi, proteins are modified into their active, final form before being shippe...

Scientists identify molecular structure of key viral protein

...elivering the viruses genetic information into the cytoplasm of the cell to infect it." In the process the protein moves from its first folded state, the metastable state (pre-fusion), to its second, final and very stable state (post-fusion), undergoing a dramatic change of shape. "The protein in its metastab...

'Shuttling' protein possibly key to resilience of cancer cells

...rst time that ATF2 constantly shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus." The researchers found that the ...overproduced, ATF2 is predominantly located in the cytoplasm because of an inadequate amount of c-Jun in the nucleus, suggesting it is likely that overexpressed ...

Lactic acid not athlete's poison, but an energy source - if you know how to use it

...ria, evidently to speed uptake of lactate from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria for burning. The new paper and a second paper to appear soon finally provide direct evidence for the hypothesized connection between the transporter molecules - the lactate shuttle - and the enzymes that burn lactate. In fact, ...

Twin molecular scissors link creation of microRNAs with gene-silencing

...tein complex that picks up the process in the cell cytoplasm and carries it through to the maturation of the finished miRNAs. Now, in new findings published online November 3 in Cell, Wistar professor Ramin Shiekhattar, Ph.D., and his colleagues report that the three-protein complex has been identified as RIS...

Sleeping sickness parasite shows how cells divide their insides

...s the Golgi complex, a membrane compartment in the cytoplasm that delivers newly-made proteins to different membranes in the cell. "Basal bodies in particular and centrosomes in general have been implicated in the biogenesis of a number of membrane-bound organelles," said Warren. "It prompted us to study furt...

How Rickettsial pathogens break into cells

...resent mainly in the nucleus, but also in the cell cytoplasm and at the cell membrane," said Cossart. "We have thus used several approaches to establish our findings definitively." Ku70 is probably not the only receptor involved in bacterial entry, she noted. The researchers found that R. conorii specifically...

MSKCC researchers uncover structure of key protein complex in cells

...mplexes, portals that connect the nucleus with the cytoplasm beyond. These conduits permit the transfer of information both to and from the nucleus, and are vital to proper cell function. "The next step in this research is to probe the importance of the contacts observed in our structure with the biochemical ...

Study shows how retinoic acid enters a cell's nucleus

... a cell's nucleus. When vitamin A enters a cell's cytoplasm (the portion that lies between the outer membrane and the nucleus), it can be converted to RA, a member of a group of compounds that enter a cell's nucleus and play a role in triggering transcription. This is a basic process for relaying genetic info...

Newly discovered genetic disease sheds light on body's water balance

... channel Aquaporin 2 (AQP-2) are shuttled from the cytoplasm to the apical membrane of the collecting duct kidney cells. This process increases water permeability and diminishes urine output from the kidneys. The group set out to prove that changing the amino acid at position 137, from arginine to either cyst...

Molecular steps involved in the creation of gene-silencing microRNAs identified

...tein complex that picks up the process in the cell cytoplasm and carries it through to the maturation of the fi...dentifies three proteins that work together in the cytoplasm to create finished miRNAs. Individually, each of the proteins was known previously, but their joint ...

Researchers extend mouse lifespan by protecting against free radicals

... with increased catalase levels in the nucleus and cytoplasm saw only modest increases in lifespan. These results fit with the theory that mitochondria can be an important source of free radicals created as a byproduct of energy production. Removing hydrogen peroxide "at the source" seems to be the most effect...

Double triumph in stem cell quest

...hem with the enucleated ESCs. The idea is that the cytoplasm of an enucleated ESC will reprogram the donor nuclei, turning the fused cell into an ESC too. The result, Verlinsky told a conference on pre-implantation genetics in London last week, is new lines of ESCs that are genetically identical to the adult d...

Mitochondrial DNA mutations play significant role in prostate cancer

...oundin the hundreds of mitochondria located in the cytoplasm outside ofeach cell's nucleus. The mitochondria often are called the "powerhouse"of the cell because they produce about 90 percent of the body's energy.John A. Petros, MD, associate professor of urology and pathology atEmory University School of Medi...

Cytoplasm affects the number of vertebrae in carp-goldfish clones

...fspring, cloned from nuclei of common carp and egg cytoplasm of goldfish, were virtually identical to the nucle...t is controlled by the egg cytoplasm. Thus the egg cytoplasm of the recipient goldfish directs segmentation of the body and hence the number of vertebrae. Commo...

Bound for destruction: Ubiquitination protects against improper Notch signaling

...ar region of the Notch protein,loosing it into the cytoplasm and triggering the activation oftranscription fact...tal amount of the Notch intracellular domain inthe cytoplasm of treated cells. Taken together, these results suggestedthat Nedd4 works as an antagonist of Notch ...

Current human embryonic stem cell lines contaminated UCSD/Salk team finds

...ng engulfed in fluid droplets and then moved tothe cytoplasm of the cell by a "pump" called the lysosomal sialic acidtransporter.Varki noted that this pathway is an unusual and previously unknown onethat may also be relevant to the entry of other small molecules intocells. In addition, the JBC study showed how...

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